Motivated & Practical Lighting
Here is where we get into filmmaking and cinematography moving into a direction that is a bit more of what we know it to be today. And there are two main points that I'm gonna be focusing on over the course of the two shoots that we do, and this is the first of those, and this is is called motivated lighting. And motivated lighting is when your lighting that you are using, whether it's augmented or real, actually using the sources in the scene, it imitates the existing light. And so if you have like in the frame of Gilda, if you have that as as a scene, the lamps are what is casting the light, and you're creating a version of that, even if the lights are not on scene, they're off-camera, but it's creating the effect that looks driven or motivated by the scene, okay. This is a very early example of that. This is a still from Citizen Kane, and I mean, it's shot separately, but that environment down below him, would be bright because that's where the light is in the scene. So it's kicking...
the light up at his face, and it feels like it's lit from that direction. So it makes a little bit of sense even though it's completely fake. Alright, and this is a pretty early example of it. Here it is in the '80s. It's a little bit of probably a more polished modern example of it, and so you can see in this frame, the sun is coming in from the window. It's creating the rim light on the side of the face, and then when you look at it from the side view, again, it's motivated by what that light is doing in the window and it's not real. So this is that idea of motivated lighting. And this is, again, something that is supremely important to what we are going to be talking about over the course of this class. And there are instances, many instances in both of these environments, where I need things to show up and affect my image, that I cannot actively change. And so it's a very important consideration, for how you begin the process. What's happening? What do I need to show up? How do I control it and how do I manipulate it? And that's where the tools and the knowledge of what we're working with comes into play. Now one of the more important people, I think when it comes to talking about this kind of stuff, one of the most important people that we can talk about is Stanley Kubrick, and he emerged in the 1950s and he really hit his stride, probably by the '60s, and he directed films like The Shining in 2001, and Clockwork Orange, and Full Metal Jacket and many, many films that have changed the shape of cinema. And he wasn't necessarily the originator, of using motivated or what we call practical lighting. He was probably the one that popularized it the most significantly. And so what makes practical lighting a little bit different from motivated lighting, the methodology is very similar, right. It's you're lighting the subjects based on what is real, and what feels real. Kubrick was a really big fan of actually having the light in the scene be the thing that was lighting his subjects. One of my favorite examples of it is, he's in the space ship and he's crawling through the space and there's kind of, it's lit from all sides of the tunnel. And so that was a really good example of it. Obviously, you can see the lights in the background. And this took a bit of technological advancement for this to be a little bit more or a realistic thing to happen, because film needed to become a little bit more sensitive so that it could handle less light. You could use more unconventional lights, without having to throw up a 10K in the side of your frame, and throw just a bunch of light at your subjects. So you can be a little bit more creative. Technology, a lot of times evolves to the point that it gives us the ability to be creative. So, it's really amazing right now with what we can do with very little light. And you definitely utilize that a little bit in the first shoot that you're gonna see. So here's another example of it, Dr. Strangelove from 1964. And it's not just about the source of light, being the light for the actors. It's actually a huge compositional element on it's own. And he was really brilliant in incorporating the light into the composition. This is probably the most extreme example of practical lighting, in maybe his repertoire. It's one of the more famous examples. A lot of photographers know this story. He made this film called Barry Lyndon in 1975, and he wanted to be able to light scenes by candlelight, because it as more authentic to the period. And obviously that was an incredibly difficult thing to do in 1975. But he wanted the scenes to feel like how they actually were, how they would have been in real life. And, you know, not necessarily the most easy thing to do, but I'm a big fan of figuring out what you wanna do first, like deciding on the concept and then figuring out how you have to execute it. Like versus coming in and saying, "He's what I can do to execute it." You kind of pigeon hole yourself into a small box creatively. I like to say, "What's my concept? "What's my idea?, and I have to figure out something that I didn't know existed or do research to find out if a piece of gear exists or not. I come to that bridge when I cross it, and it's more about you make it happen. You figure out the solution to whatever the problem is you're trying to create. And so what he did was he bought three different lenses that were designed by Carl Zeiss for NASA, and they were made to be able to photograph on the dark side of the moon. And they were plain R50 millimeter 0.7 lenses. They we're f/0.7 lenses. And he had them modified so that they could mount cinematically, and he even modified them to give him like a couple of wider versions. So he developed something around a and something around a 24. Although I don't think he used the 24 all that much. But he bought these lenses that were originally made for NASA and they were 0.7, and it was so that he could shoot these scenes by candlelight in the 1970s. And the entire film is a little bit soft because of it it, for the most part. But when you compare it, 'cause he was heavily inspired by a lot of paintings and they're side-by-side with Barry Lyndon in paintings, and you can see how he would totally, you know, steal the compositions from something and use it with his actors in the frames in the movies. And so the whole thing feels of the period. It feels authentic and he was a crazy, crazy attention to details kind of a person. Now this concept of motivated lighting, or practical lighting, they're both used really extensively in filmmaking today. And even though you can look through the decades of the '70s and the '80s and the '90s, they're all gonna have like a different visual style and a different visual feel, but whether you're comparing like a grittier movie in the '70s or to like a John Hughes, '80s movie, or Spielbergian block buster from later on, you see motivated lighting, again and again and again. You see both motivated and you see practical lighting all the time, and so I am a big believer in using both of those, when you're trying to recreate cinematic lighting.