Camera: Mega Pixels, Memory Cards, and Settings
So let's talk a little bit about megapixels what is a mega pixel? Well you hear it all the time you know you go to the store and you looked at cameras and the camera sales people will say, well yeah this is a twelve megapixel this is a sixteen megapixel and you just think well okay so I want the one with the most mega pixels that must mean it's the best right? Well, not necessarily, but a lot of digital cameras now will be, you know, say twelve, sixteen eighteen mega pixels that you can purchase where's the iphone maybe is eight megapixel I'm going to talk more about what that actually is but you need to back up a little bit more we're talking mega pixel right let's just back up a little pixel what is a pixel? Well it's like a a square color it's actually pixel is short for picture, element and that's exactly what it is. Every digital picture is made up of millions of these little pixels so just so you know, for those of you that air into mass one million pixels equals one megapixel so...
you can imagine if you've got a camera that has say, you know, eighteen megapixels you've got eighteen thousand million megapixels so eighteen mega pixels which is represented by mp equals eighteen million pixels just so you know, but why, you know, why is that important? Why do we care? Really? What what's the big deal about having all these pixels? Well, basically, it's depends on whether you have something called resolution in your image. A low resolution means you don't have that many pixels and you might get an image that looks kind of like this in fact, maybe if someone's emailed you an image and then you tried to print it out, maybe it looks something like this and that's because when you are looking at an image on a monitor, say computer screen, all you need are approximately seventy two pixels per inch to see that the image sharp and clear, but when you print that picture out, you need more pixels for toe look sharp and clear approximately, say, two hundred sixty to three hundred pixels per inch to make an image look sharp and clear with that high resolution. Of course, the bigger that you printed up, the more pixels that you're going to need to make it look really sharp way back up to that before we get to memory card. So just a little just this is a simplified version of it, but the more megapixels and I'm going to talk about quality settings on your camera to achieve that highest megapixel I say go ahead and shoot with the highest megapixel possible on your camera the highest quality and the reason is is because now when you're recording images the memory cards that you record them on to have a lot more capacity and they'll hold a lot more images now these memory cards first came out when we were starting to use digital cameras anyone here when was your first digital camera? Remember what year it wass two thousand one okay, yeah yeah I think mine was around the same time two thousand two thousand one somewhere in there and the memory cards that we were recording images on were like really small capacity now it just seems like every year they get bigger and bigger so for instance, this one this is an sd card which is short for secure digital and this is the card now that's in a lot of the cameras it's the smaller card and start as far as the size of the card itself but its capacity could be a gigabyte sixteen gigabytes thirty two gigabytes thiss one sixty four gigabytes that's a lot. You can hold a lot of images with those and you can hold the high resolution images and I want to talk about that image quality in the second andare also you might recognize this something called a compact flash or c f for compact flash compact flash hard and these were typically in the higher end more professional cameras and they're still out there although they're there kind of fading a little bit, it seems like the secure digital card is really leading the way so there's some things you want to look at when you look at these memory cards, look at all that stuff on there what does all that mean? Especially when you're shopping for one of the store? Maybe you go to an electronics store and you want to find a great memory memory card you're like, well, there's one for five dollars all by that? Well, be careful because there's some things you want to pay attention tio when purchasing a memory card to take pictures with pictures that you are going to treasure and be able to save so here's some things to look out one is the capacity obviously if you think you're going to be taking a lot of photos, I like to have at least a couple say sixteen gigabyte cards. I do have quite a few sixty four gigabyte cards just because I like to have lots of room and also when you take video, which now every cameras capturing video to that takes a lot of a lot more room a lot more space on the memory card, so you want to make sure you've got enough capacity and fortunately the prices have come down so you can buy a pretty high capacity card and it's not going to break the bank so you want to pay attention to capacity and each card has a little different capacity you like my little green arrows I made there a lot of work went into that now something else you want to pay attention to is the speed of the card and what does that mean really well, it's denoted here on this card it says thirty megabytes per second so that means when you put the card in the camera the card it has to captured the shot and record the light hits the sensor records it onto the memory card so the memory card has to be fast enough to capture shot say, five, six, seven, ten shots in a row maybe for shooting sports or something really quick you're going to need a fast card and then also let's say maybe you're a news journalist and you're shooting fast pictures or your sport photographer and you've got a fast a camera that will take, say, ten frames per second just like a paparazzi, that card has to be fast enough to work with your camera to accept the images and then also when you download those images onto your computer, if you want things to go fast, you'll need a fast card for that, so why not? The cards are not that much more expensive why not get one that's fast no matter what camera you're using you're going to have a fast card and so that cards thirty megabytes per second this one in the middle is ninety five megabytes per second so that's really fast and they've got all different names and they're all sorts of memory card manufacturers out there I just happen to have sandis cards now there's something else you want to pay attention to and this is the mysterious part a lot of people don't know about that cards now they have had over time the better cards have something called a classification and really that's for video I made another arrow here different color purple now look at this purple arrow is pointing towards that ten with a circle around it that is a classification meaning tens pretty high and it will capture images in a very high quality way quickly when you think about capturing video that's a lot of content streaming to the card and it's it's very it takes up a lot of space and room and you really need is much power as you can get when you've got this video coming in so having a card with a high classification is important now ten you want it is pretty high but you want to make sure that you buy a card that's new words say between six and ten for the classification and now they've also come up with a new classification they've gone all the way back to one so if you see cards that say one u h s that's even higher classification than ten I know hard to keep it all straight but take a couple notes and it'll come back to you is you shot for memory cards whether it's online we are at a store but you want to pay attention to the capacity the speed of the cars how many megabytes per second and then if you're shooting a lot of video make sure that you get a card that's either six to ten as far as the classification or one u h s what is the u h s mean that's about what is u h s I mean you know what I wrote that down somewhere and I'll have to get back to you on that one it's one of those acronyms it means something very important I'm sure that means means it's really really fast really high quality unbelievably high speed I'm not sure but I'll get back to you on that one okay so talking a little bit about image quality now you've got this high capacity memory card and you want to be able to record your images to it but when you're going through your camera settings no matter which camera you have now if you've got an iphone I don't think it has a quality setting on there but I don't know I'm not that familiar with the android phones maybe some of them do but when you're looking at, say, a compact camera or a digital slr, you go through your menu settings and look for quality and different manufacturers lists it differently for canon cameras that l with the little triangle next to it represents a high resolution j peg and I would recommend shooting in this highest resolution j peg and sometimes you might see a little triangle next to the l that's jagged and that's basically not as high quality is one that smooth that's really all you have to remember about that now and he has anyone here shooting raw malia just started shooting ross so raw isn't is another file format and that is in comparison to the el representing the j peg which, by the way, on some cameras that might say good, better best or find normal super fine or whatever. But you kind of get the idea it's like low medium high resolution ajay peg is a file format and j peg is inherently compressed. What that means is when your camera captures the image that j peg it's kind of squashed down to the smallest size possible but still maintaining as much quality is possible. If you choose the hell with the highest resolution j peg, you have to go through your camera settings and figure out which one it is so that's the j peg the raw is basically not compressed it all a lot of people like to shoot raw if there's a wedding photographers or trying to capture a moment very quickly when they take that photo, nothing is compressed what they have to do this take that raw file and process it through special software either that came with the camera or maybe software that you purchase third party andi, you've got a process that's what allows you to do it gives you a lot more leeway and later adjusting the exposure the color you could do so much more with it. So in other words, if you're in it's a a a lighting situation that's a little testy and you're not quite sure you're getting the right exposure setting, sometimes you may want to shoot, and raw rod takes that more room on your memory card and it's also a bigger file size because it's not compressed, so if you need to take pictures very fast, raws probably not a good choice, so just to kind of a little snapshot of the slide if you're just starting out and you're not sure which quality to shoot and shoot in the highest j peg resolution possible on your camera. So what that says super fine shooting super fine but says best shooting best if you have a camera where in the quality menu it's got this l with the smooth triangle next wit shoot in that it's a great place to start and really I'd say digital photography one o two might be a class or we could get more into shooting with raw but just so you know what it's about because even though you may not be going into that direction just yet, I think it's good to know a little bit about these things I know the one thing that would kind of intimidate me when I was first getting into photography is I would learn in things and but I you know, you have to learn a little bit at a time and then I'd be standing with other photographers talking about it and someone would go oh yeah the raw on the lens speed and they did it today and I'd be like well and I then I'd feel like kind of intimidated like I don't know what they're talking about and maybe throwing these terms around so now that you've heard it, you know, you know what it is you don't necessarily have to start doing it just yet but least you know, it's there and it's something that you can work towards because you don't have to learn everything at once just one little thing at a time and you start using it and by the way, guess what when you have problems with something actually there's trouble going on when you're working with your camera trying to take pictures that helps you learn because it makes you step back, play around around with it a little bit, maybe use some tips and techniques you learned here in the course and then move forward, and it really helps you remember. So it's it's not a bad thing to have challenges and photography. All right? So now, once you've captured those high quality images on your fast, groovy memory card, you've got import them into your computer, and one of the ways to do it is I hope you can see that in the slide because it's so white memory card readers what it is and you see three, three slots in it and that's for different size memory cards, I not sure what the third one is. I have to look at this more closely, but I think it was for maybe a sony card. Sony used to have a memory card that was proprietary sony memory stick, and I'm not sure they're doing that anymore. But now it's kind of all down to those two cards I showed you for the secure digital, the sd card and then the compact flash, which, by the way, I'm going to be giving away some of those sandisk memory cards to in my contest, so check it out, all right? They've taken shots and they're fabulous and you have put them into a card reader or you know what? Sometimes on computers have got little slots here on the side, you can pop the memory card into that too, so now you've back them up on your computer hard drive and maybe you've also backed him up in a second spot to perhaps on an external hard drive on little, you know, thumb drive somewhere I recommend whenever you're downloading your images to put them one place, but then backed them up somewhere else at least one other place, because how many people here have lost digital photographs just by yes, meteo by accidentally, you know, hitting a folder and then poof, it goes away or something happened with your hard drive it's good to back it up and there's a lot of like online cloud services to where you can back up your images, so definitely back it up, then what you want to do is format your card. Now what you want to do is go through your menu settings again and look for format, but don't anyone format right now because what happens when you format a memory card? What it does? Is it basically a racist everything off your card? So if you've taken any shots want make sure you've backed him all up a couple places then you go back and form at the card when it's in the camera what that does is deletes everything but it also kind of cleans up all that extraneous data that's wandering around out there and and makes the card sort of talk to the camera in a way where everything is copasetic and like a good relationship you know they're talking to each other everything's all cleaned up all the stuff is behind them and they're ready to move forward so it's you want to kind of clean up all that old data on your card and make sure everything's kind of clean and clear moving forward so that's what formatting is about because what happens is you look at pictures on your camera and then you go oh I don't like that one and you hit the delete button a little trash can and then you hit the delete button again and then maybe you download it on your computer and then the computer says do you want to delete these pictures? You go yeah, sure why not? And then you delete it when your cards in the computer in the memory card reader that's not a good thing to do because it kind of messes up the data structure on the memory card the best way to delete your images and be fresh and move forward is a sushi but your memory card in the camera when you buy it format it take all your pictures back him up a couple of places, then format your card again when it's in the camera that's going to be the best way and that way you won't have a corrupted memory card sometimes that happens you might get like weird folders that's what happens if your images are stored in folders on this memory card and when you delete them, the folders stay there and then the images go away you know, when I teach classes on the cruise ship I see people that are on vacation all the time with their cameras and that happens to so many people and I feel so bad for him because they're going through their pictures out, you know, in the sunshine and they actually accidentally delete everything or they messed something up with their memory card and all the pictures they're gone I'm like well, you just have to go on the currents again but some other things in life you can't recreate, so be careful with your memory cards and always format them when you back after you've packed everything up. Okay, now if you've taken any shots and you look at them later on your camera, lcd or on your computer and you think wow that has a funny color to it what's up with the color in that picture like you've taken shots inside in your living room and everything what's kind of golden or maybe you're outside the shade and people look a little blue. Well, what I did is I took a picture of a basketball hoop and then I use something called my white balance settings and took a different shot in that light scenario with a different white balance setting on my camera. So let me explain a little bit about this white balance is represented by w b and you can find it in many places on different cameras on this particular camera it's right on the back, so what this allows you to do it allows you to control what's called the white balance of your image, so I'm going back up a little bit every light source that you see in the world has something called a color temperature assigned to it, so I'm going to show you that on the kelvin scale in a minute, but first, I just wanted to show you back of an old camera that doesn't have a white balance on it. That means it was probably it's in the menu settings or something so it's on different cameras in different places. So here is the kelvin scale. Maybe you've seen this before? Maybe not, but every light source has a different color temperature assigned to it and they call it the kelvin scale because it was like lord kelvin sewn astronaut physicist guy back in the eighteen hundreds came up with some way to measure the quality of the color of the light and I won't go two in in detail about it other than to say that it's measured in kelvin and that's when you see something like oh that's thirty, two hundred or three thousand two hundred k the case stands for calvin it's measuring the color temperature of the light so for instance, you might go through your white balance settings and see a little light bulb like the one at the bottom that represents tungsten light that's around through three thousand two hundred k if you look at this kelvin scale here, you can see that lights kind of warm and that's. Why, if you take a photo inside your living room, things look a little golden now if you take a picture outside in bright daylight middle of the day that is around, it could be anywhere from five thousand to six thousand k just so you know, that's how it's measured daylight and that's kind of the true light and then in the shade things might look a little blue. You kind of move up that kelvin scale and that's like seven thousand k that could be a like a really bright day, but it's really cloudy kind of that overcast look, but a lot of brightness going on that effects the color and it could could be a color effect in your image, so you can control that just by going through your white balance settings, and this is kind of what most cameras looked like when you a tap on that little w b button on the back of the camera and you can cycle through all these different options out a w b stands for auto white balance, and that means the camera is going to make its best guesstimate, depending on which way you've got the camera pointing as to what the light temperature is in the scene, and sometimes that turns out great. I mean, if you're in running around, taking pictures all over the place of all different things, sometimes it's better just to leave it in a w b and then the camera will make a pretty good guess as to what the color temperature should be in that picture, but maybe you know, you're going to take a lot of shots a out in the sunshine, maybe you want to choose the daylight setting or the shade setting, which is right next to it or cloudy and the one next to that is tungsten, and actually, when you cycle through on different cameras, it might even pop up and tell you the name of that particular white balance setting, so what it does is it kind of tells the camera to balance for that light encounter act, any color cast that you see or you could do what I did in this picture back here and play around and make some artistic colorations and your image is just depending on which white balance setting you choose, so it could be fun to play around with just in an artistic way, but it's also a way to control things. For instance, in this basketball court they had a lot of different light sources a lot of different colored fluorescent lights, for essence used to always kind of have a green color cast to them, but you might see fluorescent lights now that look a little pink or than their daylight balance for essence. But if you are ever take pictures of kids and say a basketball court or sporting event, those are big places and they often times have really inexpensive lighting and that inexpensive lighting might be all different kinds. You've got all these different weird colors and it's like a he may have to do some experimenting and cycle through all those different white ballot options so you can choose the right one for your setting. And if you're taking a lot of pictures saying one spot it's usually a good idea to choose one white balance setting and go with it and that means you're going to have the same if you have any color caste it's the same across all the images if you go and seduce of editing later in a software program it's easier to change the lighting that's all the same and all those images as opposed to going to each one and changing the color temperature in each one well here's another picture out of that w b in another place on another camera just so you know you might have to look around a little bit on your cameras to where it is okay meet oring modes now I'm trying to get all this like kind of techno you know camera stuff out of the way in the beginning but we'll be talking about it a little bit maura's I go through some of the things over the next two days we go remember when I showed you about you know matrix, metering or value to me during try that so this is just kind of a little, um kind of base for you to work off of so basically when you are looking through your camera's viewfinder and you're looking at the scene however it's lit you've got the sum the camera's reading the light in the scene and you need to tell the camera how to expose for the light so just so you know the media remotes could be found on different places and different cameras let me go to the next slide and to show you here's a camera view finder you're looking through your pressing the shutter button halfway down, whether it's a compact camera or a digital single lens reflex dslr camera and you'll see just right over here in this slide you'll see this kind of like move around tio and usually if it's like right in the middle of the zero it means the camera is telling you I think that's a good light exposure, the cameras measuring the light in this scene and that's what you're shooting and most of your automatic modes or semi automatic modes on dh it'll making it its best guesstimate for where you should be exposing, but you need to tell the camera how do I want to measure the light in the scene and these are all different ways you can do it. These are just a little icons you can look at in your camera and the one on the very left it's going to go and just kind of explain each one well, this is a close up look at that I had a slide for that I didn't even need to go over in point that's the kind of measuring the light meter of you look through the viewfinder, so if you're going to choose the value to meter reading that's how the cameras reading the light in the scene it's known as evaluative or in some cameras it's also called matrix and basically, what it's doing? And this is like a vision of the viewfinder, it takes all the light in the scene kind of divides it into zones and analyzes it all and then gives you the right exposure it's great for scenes that might be kind of all kind of even lighting like that, you might choose a value to me during our matrix metering and it's kind of a good all around setting. In fact, a lot of cameras sort of default to that that's how the cameras reading all the light in the scene, but, you know, I went through some of my pictures and I was trying to find one where I actually shot in a value to meet a ring because you don't think about that later when you look at your pictures, you know, but if you go into the file information and your images and I'll show you this later on the third day using photo shop elements, you can see some of the metadata, the information that saved in that digital file, and this was shot with a value to me during so it was analyzing all the light in the scene, and this is what the camera gave me for exposure, and I must have been shooting in some kind of automatic or semiautomatic mode. So the values of meat oring it's kind of a good overall choice and just to go back over that that's what the icon looks like that you'll choose on your camera and this what is looks like when you're kind of looking through the viewfinder so two different things representing a value to me tearing them, moving on to partial and it kind of it's it's fairly intuitive it gives you an idea if you're measuring the light in the scene it's kind of like in the middle of the scene I forget what the percentages of made sixty to eighty percent of the light in the middle of the scene is what it's measuring for exposure this is what that would look like in your view finder kind of the middle of your viewfinder spot mita ring and that this is for something if you're shooting really high contrast scenes that's very light and dark dark shadows and bright highlights and you want to make sure that you're capturing detail in one of those you have kind of choose one you know which area my going to expose for then you would choose spot littering and I'm going to go into this moore's we're taking pictures over the next two days too but just kind of want to familiarize you with what this media ring is what it really does measures the light in the scene and it measures in different places center waited, it does kind of measure in the center, but it also kind of analyzes around the side too, and this is what it will look like in the viewfinder, and I wanted to show you picture I took using center waited meet oring and it's in front of mine underneath the manhattan beach pier, and I'm really I want to make sure he was exposed correctly, but I knew a lot of bright light was coming in from behind him, too, so I wanted that the light to really be kind of measuring here in the middle where I was focusing on him, it also depends on where you're pointing your camera, too, right on, I'll go into more detail about how exactly to control that when you're shooting the picture, but just think about if you're just starting out, you can always go back to that value to matrix metering, where it's analyzing the light and zones all over the place and play with that but it's good this kind of experiment a little bit and to look at a scene and think, wow, if I've got a lot of light behind someone, I may want to go to one of those meat oring modes it's just measuring the light right where I choose to not measuring the light all over the scene. And once you've measured all that light then you know you're looking at your pictures on the back of your lcd screen on your digital camera every anyone ever see this mountain range things show up on your old city what is that thing well it is a history graham and what is that well it's basically a graphical representation of all the lights and darks your picture is all it is and um history grams will look different for different pictures so what you see all the way over on the left is the darkest pixels or darkest color in a scene in the middle is kind of the gray tone al it ease of the image and on the right would be the highlights so for instance here's a picture I took of a cute girl of the hula hoop and the picture on the left that you also actually it's up on the wall the same time look at that I wanted the effect in this photograph to have some lens flare in it now the lens flare and I'll go into more about this to a little bit later today is the light that you see that might be hitting your lens technically this used to be kind of a bad thing to do to take pictures where you see this lens flare happened but now it's sort of artsy and fun and people are taking a lot of photos with the lens flare effect and so the way I did it is it was about two in the afternoon, and I just got down on the ground and sort of shot up at hers where I knew the son would be hitting my lens. So this is a shot and you can see the history graham represented here. I went into photo shop elements and pulled up what's called levels, and it shows me the levels of the history graham dark and light reading of this image, so look all the way look at the image, ok? I've got some darks in there and you can see those represented over here on the left on this hissed a gram, and in the middle, I've kind of got some great owns you can see the middle of the history, graham with the grazes kind of low, and then I have a lot of bright going on on the right and what's happening all the way over on the right is I've got pixels that are coming up all the way to the top here, and they're doing something called clipping that's photographers jargon for meaning it's it lost all detail in the bright areas of the scene, and it did, didn't it? Because I got that bright sun up there. There is really no perfect hissed a grants if you're looking you know how you expose your image you're seeing a history on the back of your camera all it's going to tell you is well, you've got a lot of rights here and if you want things to be over expose and lose detail it will tell you that you did because the pixels will be kind of coming out of the the hist aground so just so you know that's what that's for measures the light and dark in your picture and you can kind of adjust accordingly maybe you can't see the lcd picture that well outside shooting so maybe you want to look at your history and you can say, wow, I've got way too many lights over here I don't want that to happen I'll adjust my exposure and take the picture again so that's what that's used for and one other thing and that's that's where you might find the media ring and that went way back with all the media ring stuff but hey, a little refresher this is actually the uh I'm showing a little button on the camera and how to get to your meeting moz okay, so now we're coming to kind of a little bit near the end of this and I wanted to explain a little bit more about the light I run into this all the time when I'm especially say out in a port somewhere and I want to capture great shots, say inside of a museum or in somewhere dark, a dark spot like a church or something and you're not supposed to use flash because they don't want you flashing the artwork or maybe you're a a child's play and you want to take pictures of the kids and they don't want flash happening because it's it's disturbs everyone and and you've got to turn off your flash. But then if it's a dark, what do you d'oh? So I'm going to go into some exposure a little bit later today and talk to you more about that, but an incident way to fix it if you're out in about anywhere and you want to take great shots and capture something in a low light situation like, here I am, I'm at the palace of knossos and crete, greece, but you'd never know because it's well, first off of in back of all these tourists that are in front of me trying to get the shot, but it's it's much brighter outside than it is inside, and so the camera can't really see that great range of tone like our eyes can that's one of the frustrating things you take pictures, you'll see something you know how it looks you take a shot it's like that's not out looked it looked a lot better than that. Well, the camera can't see a great range of tone like our eyes. Candid camera sees about that much and that's why things could look more contrast. E so that's what I'm seeing here. So what did I dio too shoot inside of here and really make sure that I captured it without using a flash. I raised my I s o so I s o shot with film. It was called a say was the film's sensitivity to the light? So if you like, shopped at the grocery store and bought film way back when they would say ok, here's, the film to buy for shooting pictures indoors it's a four hundred and here's the film for shooting pictures outside it's a as a one hundred or two hundred so lower number meant let less light sensitivity. Now with digital cameras it's called so it actually stands for it's an acronym. I actually remember international standards organization it's, just a standards organization. That's come up with measuring aa lot of different things that happens to be the the cameras, sensors sensitivity to the light that's what I also is so basically, if your dark situation a low light situation you don't want things to be too blurry you can raise your eyes so and essentially it's it makes things more sensitive to the light and that since it kind of lets more light into your cameras you could make a better exposure now there's a caveat to this if he raise your eyes so on your camera when you look at your digital images later they may have something in them called noise which is basically could be some discolored pixels in the dark areas but you khun kind of fix those with an image editing software program so sometimes you have to kind of make a trade off when you're in certain situations and want to get an exposure you want to capture it you know in some way shape or form if I couldn't flash I needed to raise my eyes so so I do this all the time if I'm in a museum somewhere in a low life situation and I want I want things to be a little bit sharper and bring more light into the scene so four hundred some cameras go all the way up to thirty two thousand or thirty two hundred sixty four hundred you can really raise the iast so quite a bit of course the more expensive the camera the better the image is going to look because that image sensor is bigger and can handle can handle raising the so so the less expensive the camera when you raise the I s o, you might get a lot more pixels in the picture, but sometimes it's like, well, we're going to get the shot at all. I can try and fix it later, you know, you kind of just have to get something, so try raising rise, so next time you're in a little light situation, then just remember, when you go back outside in the break sunlight to adjust it back down, one hundred eyes, so a lot of people like to shoot at, and sometimes it might just be an auto, and then you never know what the iast so is, because the camera just chooses it, and it won't even tell you what you won't know until you look at the picture later and look at the file info. So if you're on auto, you never know what you're going to get. You can kind of take more control over at one hundred makes for really good, clear, sharp picture, no matter what, but you might not have enough light, so just look in your eyes, so setting fine, I also on the back of your camera or in your menu settings, depending on your camera, and try to find the ice, so that works for you in that light situation, so here's the payoff here's my fabulous palace of non isis the interior in crete greece and I was able to capture because I raised that I also because it was pretty dark in there as you saw any questions about any of that so far we do have some questions about external light meters and about whether you feel it's necessary for one they're starting to use light meters do you just recommend using the one that's in your camera when you think about those well that's a good question and I just happened to have broad for illustrative purposes only I'll talk a little bit about me during the light so they're two waves that you meet her the light one is you meet meter measure the light falling upon someone with something called an external incident meter and this is from my old film days I actually don't even use this anymore um but what you would do is you would go up and you know turn it on and then I'd hit the button and I would say if someone were photographing me I would hold this up in this little dome here will measure the light falling upon it will measure the light falling upon it and that's an incident external light meter reading and so then I would get little numbers here that would tell me oh ok set your camera to a particular aperture and shutter speed for this light falling upon the person it's a very accurate way to measure light but it takes a little extra time obviously in another external light meter I know now actually front of mind show me this really cool mobile app that you can use that will act as an incident light meter and then for like twenty nine dollars or something there's a little thing that looks like this you pop into the top of your iphone so uh you know, you could try it it just a little it's a little more work so the other way to measure light is with something called a reflective light meter and that's actually inside every digital camera. And so what happens is if I point my camera at you it's measuring the light that's reflecting on you back into my camera so reflective light meter is inside the camera that's what you're using when you're measuring the light just like I showed you before with those meter readings and I'll go back to that slide with the meter readings and also the exposure that you see in the back of the vue fine on the bottom of the viewfinder measuring that light and that's what it's going to do so these are all the media remote so this is this is the way the camera is measuring the reflective light reflecting back into the camera it's not quite as accurate because different surfaces reflect and absorb light differently. So maybe if something is all black, it might be kind of observing the light, not reflecting much back or if maybe I'm shooting snow and the snow has a highly reflective quality. It's sending all this light back into the camera and the light meter's going well and freaking out. I'm going to show you more about that, too, but and howto I had a compensate for that using something called exposure compensation. So what happens is the cameras reading on that reflected light and it's kind of closing things down and you might have, strangely enough, you might take a picture of snow with your reflective light meter in your camera, and you look at the picture and it looks gray. Uh, what happened there? So that has to do with the reflected light, and I'll show you how to control that. So that good question I'm glad I brought this thing along, right? This's an incident light meter just so you know, so I would run up when I was, say, taking pictures of families and groups, you know, when I was shooting with film, if I was shooting alone, I would run up and, like you know, I'd stick this in their face, I always had to tell someone, okay, I'm sticking something in your face just bear with me I'm just measuring the light and they sit there like this. What do I do? So sometimes if someone's that usedto you know, being shot with this, it could be a little unnerved ing, especially if they're already nervous in front of the camera, but it can be a very accurate device to you is if you want to go to the trouble and expense, and I'm interested in trying out that mobile app with the little dome and just seeing what happens, you never know there's so many, so many gadgets to buy, okay? That's, the other thing and I'm going to go into more about this, too, is once you get into photography, you're just going to see all kinds of things out there that you just have tohave oh my gosh, if I get that, then I can take this picture and if I get this, I can take that picture and the one thing you don't want to get wrapped up in is you don't have to buy super expensive equipment to be a good photographer and take great shots sometimes you can just get a little a few things here and there, and I'm also going to show you more to when we get into working with the light is ways you can reflect light with different things, not even having to buy anything professional. Although I do have some some great reflectors and things like that here. In fact, in here, we have all kinds of goodies, right? Oh, this is it. And I'm actually I'm kind of moving ahead a little bit, but I just wanted to show you this talking about light measuring lights, working with light. I always carry one of these in my purse, and I'm going to show you more about this when we get into reflecting light and kind of huh find the light. But, you know, you look better with a little reflected light on your face, so we'll talk more about that too. But that's that's basically what's happening with your reflective light meter is it's measuring light reflecting back into it. We have a question from rick. See, general dare question. I understand full frame sensors have generally better high I esso performance, but is there a general overall quality difference in full frame versus crop sensor? Well, the so yes to answer that question, there are cameras with what's called a full frame sensor and then usually those that one's a little bit more expensive the professional grade cameras and then there is something that they've been turned his entry level cameras that have a smaller censor, some people called the cropped sensor, and it gives you and while going to more of this, too, but kind of a different field of view when you're capturing the shot. But of course the bigger the censor, the better the picture basically, I mean that's just kind of a simplified way of answering it. Um, so yes, if you're going to raise your eyes, so then the more expensive the camera shot of veteran shot is it's going to come out if you really want to raise that very high, but you can still get some great shots out of the cameras that have the smaller sense, sir size. So not all is lost awesome, gunny sack, photography ass. I'm curious why you would use exposure compensation versus adjusting your settings and your camera tio have a preference between those two? Well, sometimes you're just taking pictures on the fly, so the question was just using exposure compensation as opposed to playing with the shutter speed and aperture, or using different other presets on your camera. Sometimes you're you're taking pictures quickly. And you're kind of doing things on the fly and just if you're looking through the viewfinder, you know, if you know where your shutter speed and aperture buttons are and you could do those looking through it and take the picture great, sometimes things happen a lot faster using exposure compensation, it's really kind of an easier way to do it if you know all about shutter speed and aperture and you're really adept at and feel very comfortable with it, go for that, but exposure compensations, it's like kind of the easy way to do it and it's the instant way to do it. In fact, I know a lot of videographers that will be taking video. You know you've seen everyone taking video now with digital slr cz and sometimes just quickly expose the image the video properly instead of going into adjusting the shutter speed and aperture, which have different effects in your photograph, just playing with exposure compensation could immediately brighten up or dark in the scene it's kind of a quick way to do it and one question from sight it is looking for a little bit of clarification on what the camera meter is he sees the line with zero one, two plus and minus can you talk a little bit one more time about how that is used in the camera? Yes good question, and this is something that kind of baffled me for a while initially to I'm thinking, ok, so the camera has this reflective internal light meter, and I can tell it which meet oring mode to use to measure the light in the scene. And when you look through the viewfinder, this little yellow arrow here is going to move up and down with the camera telling you, hey, I think you have too much light or hey, you don't have enough light so it's going to move up and down this now you can pay attention to that or not, you don't have to maybe you don't care that the camera's telling you, it's, overexposed, that's, that's what you want to capture on that's whenever you're shooting in any of the automatic mode. So I'm going to go into more of the camera presets everything next, but if you're shooting emmanuel and you choose a meat oring mode, great, but that doesn't really matter, because you can adjust your exposure, setting shutter speed and aperture eso anyway, you want doesn't matter, and you don't have to pay attention to this little light meter thing in your view finder at all. You're just you're going for the settings that you want for that picture. But if you're ever shooting in the automatic or any of the kind of semi automatic zones and you want, and you're not sure about the exposure, you want to pay attention and where this little meter is going, is it on zero? Ok, I guess ever I've got the right setting. I'll take the shot. You're pointing the camera to different places, but that's what that little meter is for for you to it's like a good guest, ament, but it's, not necessarily the end all and it's kind of showing you the light in the scene.