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Shutter Speeds

Lesson 8 from: Fundamentals of Photography 2016

John Greengo

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Lesson Info

8. Shutter Speeds

Lessons

Class Trailer
1

Class Introduction

17:26
2

Welcome to Photography

13:08
3

Camera Types Overview

02:00
4

Viewing Systems

28:43
5

Viewing Systems Q&A

08:45
6

Lens Systems

32:06
7

Shutter Systems

13:17
8

Shutter Speeds

10:47
9

Choosing a Shutter Speed

31:30
10

Shutter Speeds for Handholding

08:36
11

Shutter Speed Pop Quiz

09:06
12

Camera Settings

25:35
13

General Camera Q&A

14:38
14

Sensor Sizes: The Basics

15:33
15

Sensor Sizes: Compared

19:10
16

Pixels

20:13
17

ISO

21:13
18

Sensor Q&A

13:34
19

Focal Length: Overview

11:09
20

Focal Length: Angle of View

15:09
21

Wide Angle Lenses

08:48
22

Telephoto Lenses

25:23
23

Angle of View Q&A

09:29
24

Fish Eye Lenses

10:39
25

Tilt & Shift Lenses

23:42
26

Subject Zone

17:19
27

Lens Speed

09:56
28

Aperture Basics

08:46
29

Depth of Field

21:49
30

Aperture Pop Quiz

13:23
31

Lens Quality

18:30
32

Photo Equipment Life Cycle

03:57
33

Light Meter Basics

09:25
34

Histogram

15:25
35

Histogram Pop Quiz and Q&A

10:58
36

Dynamic Range

06:03
37

Exposure Modes

15:58
38

Manual Exposure

09:38
39

Sunny 16 Rule

05:54
40

Exposure Bracketing

10:18
41

Exposure Values

27:21
42

Exposure Pop Quiz

26:43
43

Focus Overview

16:15
44

Focusing Systems

05:15
45

Autofocus Controls

11:56
46

Focus Points

07:35
47

Autofocusing on Subjects

20:19
48

Manual Focus

07:52
49

Digital Focusing Assistance

03:40
50

Focus Options: DSLR and Mirrorless

04:58
51

Shutter Speeds for Sharpness and DoF

05:20
52

Depth of Field Pop Quiz

12:14
53

Depth of Field Camera Features

04:54
54

Lens Sharpness

09:58
55

Camera Movement

05:20
56

Handheld and Tripod Focusing

04:32
57

Advanced Techniques

07:12
58

Hyperfocal Distance

06:50
59

Hyperfocal Quiz and Focusing Formula

04:36
60

Micro adjust and AF Fine Tune

05:34
61

Focus Stacking and Post Sharpening

06:00
62

Focus Problem Pop Quiz

18:07
63

The Gadget Bag: Camera Accessories

25:30
64

The Gadget Bag: Lens Accessories

12:46
65

The Gadget Bag: Neutral Density Filter

20:43
66

The Gadget Bag: Lens Hood and Teleconverters

08:55
67

The Gadget Bag: Lens Adapters

05:43
68

The Gadget Bag: Lens Cleaning Supplies

04:34
69

The Gadget Bag: Macro Lenses and Accessories

15:57
70

The Gadget Bag: Flash and Lighting

05:08
71

The Gadget Bag: Tripods and Accessories

18:50
72

The Gadget Bag: Custom Cases

11:20
73

10 Thoughts on Being a Photographer

07:37
74

Direct Sunlight

25:04
75

Indirect Sunlight

18:49
76

Sunrise and Sunset

18:39
77

Cloud Light

14:48
78

Golden Hour

09:50
79

Light Pop Quiz

07:53
80

Light Management

14:00
81

Artificial Light

13:56
82

Speedlights

16:02
83

Off-Camera Flash

27:38
84

Advanced Flash Techniques

09:49
85

Editing Overview

08:24
86

Editing Set-up

08:06
87

Importing Images

16:45
88

Best Use of Files and Folders

20:54
89

Culling

20:56
90

Develop: Fixing in Lightroom

18:13
91

Develop: Treating Your Images

10:53
92

Develop: Optimizing in Lightroom

14:51
93

Art of Editing Q&A

06:01
94

Composition Overview

06:53
95

Photographic Intrusions

10:10
96

Mystery and Working the Scene

16:18
97

Point of View

09:11
98

Better Backgrounds

16:02
99

Unique Perspective

11:02
100

Angle of View

15:06
101

Subject Placement

41:14
102

Subject Placement Q&A

05:18
103

Panorama

07:39
104

Multishot Techniques

13:57
105

Timelapse

16:13
106

Human Vision vs The Camera

20:07
107

Visual Perception

08:35
108

Visual Balance Test

22:56
109

Visual Drama

12:25
110

Elements of Design

28:57
111

The Photographic Process

12:28
112

Working the Shot

27:38
113

The Moment

04:42
114

One Hour Photo - Colby Brown

1:04:32
115

One Hour Photo - John Keatley

1:03:05
116

One Hour Photo - Art Wolfe

59:01
117

One Hour Photo - Rocco Ancora

1:01:20
118

One Hour Photo - Mike Hagen

1:01:20
119

One Hour Photo - Lisa Carney

1:00:52
120

One Hour Photo - Ian Shive

1:08:00
121

One Hour Photo - Sandra Coan

1:10:29
122

One Hour Photo - Daniel Gregory

1:06:07
123

One Hour Photo - Scott Robert Lim

1:05:41

Lesson Info

Shutter Speeds

So let's talk about shutter speeds. Alright, this is an informal quiz. You guys all ready for your quiz here? Look at the screen. Which number is larger? Okay. Now the problem is, is that you didn't even think about this. Your brain just immediately says, eight is larger. And that is gonna be a little bit of a problem going forward, because we're gonna talk about shutter speeds. And for the most part, shutter speeds are listed as fractions. Where they are fractions, but they're not listed as fractions. And so when I look at eight and two, two is a bigger number to me. Because it's a half second, which is a longer period of time than one 1/8 of a second. So let's take a look at the shutter speed range that we are typically going to be working with in the world of photography. Everything from 1/8000 of a second to 30 seconds. Now as you hold up your camera, and you look through the viewfinder, at the bottom of your viewfinder over on the left hand side in almost every single case, is gon...

na be your shutter speed. But it's not going to be listed as you can see over here with Canon and Nikon. It's 500, it's not 1/500. Now I will give Sony a little bit of cred here. They actually say 1/500 of a second. They're telling you what it is. But for the most part, everyone else, you need to remember, it's one over. Which means everything is reversed. If you remember fractions. We're not gonna do a math class right now. But there's a lot of reversing when you'd go into fractions. Alright. So, these are our shutter speeds. Let's start with the simplest most obvious one. Everyone knows what one second is. So when you go from one second to two second, you doubled the amount of time, you've also doubled the amount of light. Alright. This is what we call a full stop of light. We're letting in a full stop more of light, 'cause we've doubled the light. And so, anytime you hear that phrase full stop, that means we are either doubling or we're cutting in half. It can go either direction, in that regard. And many cameras will go down to 30 seconds. Some will go beyond. Some you can customize and do as long as you want. But generally, 30 seconds is as long as we can turn the dial and make it goat. Now in the other direction, when we go up to a half second. Compared to one second, it's half as much time, it's half as much light. It's a linear scale, it's very easy to keep track off. Now a half second can be listed as two as in 1/2. Or it can be listed as 0.5. And if your camera manufacturer is too cheap to actually put a point right there. They'll use little quotation marks instead. And so that means .5, in fractions and decimals. We're not gonna have a debate over which one is better, just gonna let them be, they are the way they are, different companies choose different systems. So up at a half second, half the amount of light compared to one second. It's a full stop, less light. A 60th of a second is a pretty typical shutter speed you're gonna run across a lot. The top shutter speed in most cameras these days is gonna be somewhere around and 8000th of a second. And so, this is where I would like to dive in to a little bit more advanced background theory on this stop. Why do we call it stop? It has to do with f-stop. But actually, it goes back to exposure value. And one of the things that, I don't know, I was just brought aware of that I haven't really thought about, is that we're talking about shutter speeds, and this is a terrible name for the subject that we're talking about. This has nothing to do with the speed that the shutter in your camera is moving. What this is, is the exposure time. How much time, your sensor is exposed to light. And so this would've been better if someone called this exposure time. But it got called shutter speeds and it stuck. And it does make a lot of sense. But now you know. Okay. And so exposure time. Let's talk about exposure. There is a scale. People wanted to simplify things at one point. How much light do we have in here right now? And one way is you could say, well you need this shutter speed and this aperture to capture this amount of light. They said no, let's simplify it down to one number. How bright is it here, and how bright is it over here? And so, you can go ahead and you can buy light meters. And they have old light meters that have needles on them. I have a newer light meter over here and this one's digital Newer. This is 20 years old. And so this is a light meter. I'm gonna go ahead and turn this on. And there's different modes that I can put it in. And I am gonna put it in an EV mode right now. And so, everything falls on an EV scale in brightness. Alright. So let me give yah, a few of the, look at the key wants. Zero, is not pure black. And this is a little confusing. It kind of should be, but it's not pure black. Zero is using an f/1.0 lens at one second. And those of you who know photography. You're probably saying to yourself, that's really dark. Okay. If you need a 1.0 lens and one second to expose the image. It is really, really dark. Okay. Now, when you go up to number one on the scale, we are doubling the light. You see a trend here folks? We like to double and we like to cut things in half. Alright. And so, when we go from one to two, we've doubled again. When we go from three to four, we've doubled again. So typically, typical room wise that you might have in a normal room. Normally lit room. Might be around six. If you go outside on a cloudy day, it might be 12. You go outside on a sunny day, it might be 15. Alright. So, here in the audience, how much light is striking me right here in the forehead right now? So wants to guess what number on the scale, is right here on my forehead? I'm gonna say seven. Seven. Okay, are you guys ready? Here we go. And what's the answer? The answer is 6.7. Very good. Okay, what do you th... You're so good at this. What do you think the light is on your face right now? Your face. You know this is 6.7 right here. Well, I'm darker over here. Five. Five. Okay, let's come over here. Lets hold this right up to your forehead, and what do you get? 6.2 6.2. Okay. And so, you know what? Let's check Ken out? What's Ken here? She is 6.1. You know right here, this seems pretty bright. This is 9.1 over here. And if I go... Where is it really dark? It's kind of dark. I'm gonna go a little off screen here. So over here, I've gone out of the light, and so here, I'm down to 5.3. And so, it's just a different way of judging how much brightness. And once you knew that number, we're not gonna get too far into this. But at one point, you could have that number and go, well that means this shutter speed, this aperture. Or different combinations. Now, is there anything brighter than a sunny day? Well, the earth really doesn't get that much closer to the sun. But we do have snow which reflects the light. And we also have artificial lights. And the closer we get to a light, the stronger it gets. And so, the scale goes up. Higher. And it just depends on how bright the light is and how close we are to the light. And you know what? We now have films and we have sensors, that can go much darker than zero, and so the EV scale can keep going in each direction. But generally, you're not gonna see anything below. I saw something related to one of the new cameras that came up that works down at EV minus 4. But this is just the EV scale, and we're gonna talk about this, later on in the exposure section when we talk about exposure value compensation. And so just understanding it's a scale where you go one up, it doubles, you go one down, it cuts it in half. And so, that's kind of the behind the scene story on these stops. And so, one EV is equal to one stop of light. It's very easy increments to work out. And so, we're back onto our shutter speeds. Now, as you change shutter speeds on your cameras, you're gonna notice that you have these third stops in between. And there's nothing wrong with using them. I don't list them because the numbers are harder to memorize and it clutters up my screen, and I don't want all of them on there, but you can select you know, between 30 and 60. There's also a 40 and 50th of a second. And so whatever you need to set, you're perfectly fine setting. But as kinda talk through the class, I'm kinda keeping it on these whole shutter speeds so that we have easier numbers to deal with. On some cameras, notably Nikons, there will be an x-sync after 30 seconds. And what x-sync is, is a flash synchronization which will set the camera to the highest shutter speed that the camera can use with electronic flash. And that'll range typically between a 125th and 250th of a second. And it's exactly the same thing as just simply setting that shutter speed. The only difference is that it's way at the end of the dial and it's less likely to get bumped off slightly by one. If it gets bumped, you'll really know the difference between 250th of a second and 30 seconds. Another feature that you might see on some cameras, is a a B or a bulb mode. And what this is, is it's for people who wanna leave the shutter open longer than 30 seconds. So, on the old view cameras, in order to trigger the shutter, they have these leaf shutters in the lenses. You had a cable release hooked up, connected to and air bulb release that you would squeeze and it would trigger the shutter. And as long as you were squeezing that bulb, it would leave the shutter open. And so that's where this term bulb comes from. As long as you are holding down. And nowadays, it's an electronic cable release. As long as you're holding down, the shutter stays open. And they have little locks on them so if you wanna do a five minute exposure. You push it in, you kind of lock it in, and then you can just wait five minutes for your exposure. And so that is how you can get to longer exposures. Now, a number of the newest cameras, allow you to go into the custom settings of the camera, and set any shutter speed you want over one second. And so, if you wanna leave it open for 27 seconds, you can program your camera to do it. But that's only a few cameras. For the most part, I do night time photography, fairly frequently. I rarely go beyond 30 seconds. Rarely.

Class Materials

Free Download

Fundamentals of Photography Outline

Bonus Materials with Purchase

Learning Project Videos
Learning Projects PDF
Slides for The Camera Lessons 1-13
Slides for The Sensor Lessons 14-18
Slides for The Lens Lessons 19-31
Slides for The Exposure Lessons 32-42
Slides for Focus Lessons 43-62
Slides for The Gadget Bag Lessons 63-72
Slides for Light Lesson 73-84
Slides for the Art of Edit Lessons 85-93
Slides for Composition Lesson 94-105
Slides for Photographic Vision Lessons 106-113

Ratings and Reviews

a Creativelive Student
 

Love love all John Greengo classes! Wish to have had him decades ago with this info, but no internet then!! John is the greatest photography teacher I have seen out there, and I watch a lot of Creative Live classes and folks on YouTube too. John is so detailed and there are a ton of ah ha moments for me and I know lots of others. I think I own 4 John Greengo classes so far and want to add this one and Travel Photography!! I just drop everything to watch John on Creative Live. I wish sometime soon he would teach a Lightroom class and his knowledge on photography post editing.!!! That would probably take a LOT OF TIME but I know John would explain it soooooo good, like he does all his Photography classes!! Thank you Creative Live for having such a wonderful instructor with John Greengo!! Make more classes John, for just love them and soak it up! There is soooo much to learn and sometimes just so overwhelming. Is there anyway you might do a Motivation class!!?? Like do this button for this day, and try this technique for a week, or post this subject for this week, etc. Motivation and inspiration, and playing around with what you teach, needed so much and would be so fun.!! Just saying??? Awaiting gadgets class now, while waiting for lunch break to be over. All the filters and gadgets, oh my. Thank you thank you for all you teach John, You are truly a wonderful wonderful instructor and I would highly recommend folks listening and buying your classes.

Eve
 

I don't think that adjectives like beautiful, fantastic or excellent can describe the course and classes with John Greengo well enough. I've just bought my first camera and I am a total amateur but I fell in love with photography while watching the classes with John. It is fun, clear, understandable, entertaining, informative and and and. He is not only a fabulous photographer but a great teacher as well. Easy to follow, clear explanations and fantastic visuals. The only disadvantage I can list here that he is sooooo good that keeps me from going out to shoot as I am just glued to the screen. :-) Don't miss it and well worth the money invested! Thank you John!

Vlad Chiriacescu
 

Wow! John is THE best teacher I have ever had the pleasure of learning from, and this is the most comprehensive, eloquent and fun course I have ever taken (online or off). If you're even / / interested in photography, take this course as soon as possible! You might find out that taking great photos requires much more work than you're willing to invest, or you might get so excited learning from John that you'll start taking your camera with you EVERYWHERE. At the very least, you'll learn the fundamental inner workings and techniques that WILL help you get a better photo. Worried about the cost? Well, I've taken courses that are twice as expensive that offer less than maybe a tenth of the value. You'll be much better off investing in this course than a new camera or a new lens. I cannot reccomend John and this course enough!

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