Fundamentals of Photography


Fundamentals of Photography


Lesson Info

Silhouette & Starburst: Sunrise & Sunset Light

So one of the other things that you can do at sunrise and sunset, especially with that twilight background, is doing silhouette shots. And these are really good shots in my mind because they're simple. They're easy to understand. They're sometimes very graphic and visual. They work well in small sizes. And so anytime you have something with significant shapes with that color in the background, whether it's twilight or ranging to the oranges and the reds, it's gonna look really, really good. And so this will work in natural environments. In our city environments as well. It typically for a fairly brief time as to when you get that right mix of that twilight color. And you do need to be in that open terrain so that you can see the sky. And so just look for your distinctive shapes. And you want as distinctive shape as you can. And the best color you can. And you will need to underexpose. And this is one of those areas where you need to underexpose by at least 2/3rds of a stop. Usually, mi...

nus one is where you're gonna need to be on these. Sometimes minus two depending on how dark it is. And so this is, I think if I remember it, this is in Mali. Camel train moving salt back and forth. Gasworks park in Seattle. Great sunset. I was in a, I was in, where was I in? Colorado in this case. And I was looking for a viewpoint where I could see where the sun was. And I was kind of stuck in this burned out forest. But then I realized, oh wait, the forest actually makes for a really nice silhouette against these colors. The Saint Charles Bridge in Prague. Those shapes. That nice blue in the background. Now one of the things you might have noticed from that last shot is the starburst from the lights there. And so a lot of people have been kind of wondering well is that natural and what's going on? And it's kind of artificial. It's added by the camera. And the aperture and the lens in the camera. And so it adds a nice little just extra flair, sparkle to the photograph. And so if you do wanna get this starburst in your photographs there is a couple of ways that you can make some adjustments in your camera to really make it show up. First up, it's gonna happen when you stop your aperture down farther in the f 11 to f 22 range. Typically the more you stop it down, the more significant that starburst is going to be. Now you'll notice in this photograph very easily that you can see the starburst on the bottom half and not on the top half. And that's because you have a dark background. Lights are gonna show up very, more easily in front of a dark background than lights on a light background. And so you need that light in front of something dark. And so you need to find dark objects that you can put around the sun so it's kind of peeking out around it. You can't just get it with the sun high up in the sky. And it tends to work better with wide angle lenses as well. And so it just, adds a nice little extra element in a photograph. And so it's something that it can be overused I guess. You know, it can become a clique. But it's a nice little extra element that I like to have. And will cause me to sometimes stop down a little bit further than I need for other reasons in depth of field. I'm just trying to go for more of a starburst on it. What's interesting is that the starburst that you get can look quite different from one lens to the next to the next. And this has to do with how the lens is built and what's going on in the lens. 'Cause this is a direct relationship to the apertures. And where they are and what they're doing in the lens. And so some lenses have five, six, or seven blades. Some have more. Some have less. But what's gonna happen is where those intersections are is causing those bursts of lines or the concentration of lines. And so what's happening is that with five blades you're gonna get these five rays coming out. But, funny thing about the way lenses work is that you're also gonna get light rays coming out the opposite of those directions as well. And so with five blades you're actually going to get 10 points to your star. Now with six, when they go in the opposite direction, they're going the exact direction of another blade there. So with six, and an even number, it's six again. And so it always ends up being in an even number of star points. But it may vary depending on how many blades you have in your camera. So seven then becomes 14 points. And so it always ends up in an even number of points. And so here's examples from those types of lenses right there. And so that's why you'll get a different look to the starburst. And so once again, let's see, in this case we were shooting at f 11. It's with a 50 millimeter lens. You don't have to have a wide angle lens. But it could become a little bit more easily seen there. And once again, you're not seeing it on the top half because light against light just isn't very easy to see. But light against dark can be much more easily seen. So if you do wanna see this, the idea is to kind of obscure the sun into this little tiny point that you can get it to kind of come through. And so if you can find a little pinpoint for the sun to shine through, you're gonna get a more distinctive starburst. And you can get starbursts obviously with other light sources as well. And each lens will have its own starburst quality. I haven't seen too many lens reviews that rate lenses on their starburst quality. But I think if they wanna, if those lens reviewers out there wanna add another category I think that'd be a good category. I'd like to know how well that does. Kena? John, I do have a starburst question. So before we get too far past that. This is from Karon, who said, is there is a way to avoid the lens flair when capturing the starburst? So, you know that you normally do get. Is there a way to avoid that? So if you don't want this, you could shoot wide open. Because, especially, you know, if you shoot wide open there's gonna be no aperture there. And so wide open will completely avoid it. Sorry, I meant like the extra lens flair. Oh, the extra lens flair. Not when you are going for the starburst. Right. And so, so you are shooting at something bright. And, no. (laughing) There really is no way of avoiding that. If it's something, if you're shooting a starburst of this light but there's another light that's causing the problem a lens hood, or putting your hand up, or something to block that would block that. But if it's in the frame, it's in the frame. And I notice this on movies that I watch. And, you know, they're panning along and there's the sun. And there is this lens flair that happens opposite the center point. So if the sun's up here, and this is the middle of the frame, you're gonna see this point. And as it moves, it's exactly opposite the center point. And, you could spend a lot of money digitally to take it out in a movie or you could spend a lot of time photo shopping to try to reduce it. But that's just part of the inherent qualities of a lens. Some lenses are better at reducing those. And there's a lot of interesting things that they do in lenses. They put this, a black flocking material around the edges, so that light doesn't bounce off the edges of the frame. Leica goes to great strengths to advertise the fact that they paint the edges of their elements so that it doesn't reflect light off the edge of the element as it's going through the lens so that you don't have as many lens problems. So, typically higher quality lenses will have less problems than lower quality ones.

Class Description

As a photographer, you will need to master the technical basics of the camera and form an understanding of the kind of equipment you need. The Fundamentals of Digital Photography will also teach something even more important (and crucial for success) - how to bring your creative vision to fruition.

Taught by seasoned photographer John Greengo, the Fundamentals of Digital Photography places emphasis on quality visuals and experiential learning. In this course, you’ll learn:

  • How to bring together the elements of manual mode to create an evocative image: shutter speed, aperture, and image composition.
  • How to choose the right gear, and develop efficient workflow.
  • How to recognize and take advantage of beautiful natural light.

John will teach you to step back from your images and think critically about your motivations, process, and ultimate goals for your photography project. You’ll learn to analyze your vision and identify areas for growth. John will also explore the difference between the world seen by the human eye and the world seen by the camera sensor. By forming an awareness of the gap between the two, you will be able to use your equipment to its greatest potential.


1Class Introduction
2Photographic Characteristics
3Camera Types
4Viewing System
5Lens System
6Shutter System
7Shutter Speed Basics
8Shutter Speed Effects
9Camera & Lens Stabilization
10Quiz: Shutter Speeds
11Camera Settings Overview
12Drive Mode & Buffer
13Camera Settings - Details
14Sensor Size: Basics
15Sensor Sizes: Compared
16The Sensor - Pixels
17Sensor Size - ISO
18Focal Length
19Angle of View
20Practicing Angle of View
21Quiz: Focal Length
22Fisheye Lens
23Tilt & Shift Lens
24Subject Zone
25Lens Speed
27Depth of Field (DOF)
28Quiz: Apertures
29Lens Quality
30Light Meter Basics
32Quiz: Histogram
33Dynamic Range
34Exposure Modes
35Sunny 16 Rule
36Exposure Bracketing
37Exposure Values
38Quiz: Exposure
39Focusing Basics
40Auto Focus (AF)
41Focus Points
42Focus Tracking
43Focusing Q&A
44Manual Focus
45Digital Focus Assistance
46Shutter Speeds & Depth of Field (DOF)
47Quiz: Depth of Field
48DOF Preview & Focusing Screens
49Lens Sharpness
50Camera Movement
51Advanced Techniques
52Quiz: Hyperfocal Distance
53Auto Focus Calibration
54Focus Stacking
55Quiz: Focus Problems
56Camera Accessories
57Lens Accessories
58Lens Adaptors & Cleaning
60Flash & Lighting
63Being a Photographer
64Natural Light: Direct Sunlight
65Natural Light: Indirect Sunlight
66Natural Light: Mixed
67Twilight: Sunrise & Sunset Light
68Cloud & Color Pop: Sunrise & Sunset Light
69Silhouette & Starburst: Sunrise & Sunset Light
70Golden Hour: Sunrise & Sunset Light
71Quiz: Lighting
72Light Management
73Flash Fundamentals
75Built-In & Add-On Flash
76Off-Camera Flash
77Off-Camera Flash For Portraits
78Advanced Flash Techniques
79Editing Assessments & Goals
80Editing Set-Up
81Importing Images
82Organizing Your Images
83Culling Images
84Categories of Development
85Adjusting Exposure
86Remove Distractions
87Cropping Your Images
88Composition Basics
89Point of View
90Angle of View
91Subject Placement
92Framing Your Shot
93Foreground & Background & Scale
94Rule of Odds
95Bad Composition
96Multi-Shot Techniques
97Pixel Shift, Time Lapse, Selective Cloning & Noise Reduction
98Human Vision vs The Camera
99Visual Perception
100Quiz: Visual Balance
101Visual Drama
102Elements of Design
103Texture & Negative Space
104Black & White & Color
105The Photographic Process
106Working the Shot
107What Makes a Great Photograph?