Text Effects & Special Characters
Well now we're going to look at some other things with type. So I'm gonna do some, sort of effects, they're not really effects, but I'm going to do text wrap. That's one thing I get asked a lot, "How do I wrap text around images?" Right, so I'm going to show you some of the things we can do with that text wrap. So in this case I just have some text, doesn't really matter what it looks like, what it says. We've got Alice in Wonderland up here. And I also have some guides on the page, and that's because I know exactly where I want to put that image that I'm going to put in there. So I've got an image and I'd like to plop it right in the middle of my text, and I'd like the text to wrap around it. So I'm gonna go ahead and go up to the File menu and choose Place, and I'm going to place an image, go ahead and place this. I'm going to turn off my Show Import Options 'cause when I place graphics I really don't have much to choose from unless I'm working with layers. So right now I'm just goin...
g to place this, and I'm gonna go ahead and just place it at the corner of this guide and drag it out till it fits the guide there, or close enough. And right now the text is just running right through the image, or the image is on top of the text. So I need to go ahead and tell it to wrap around that image. Gonna go up to the Window menu and come down to Text Wrap. In old days, in the olden days, in a couple versions back, it was inside the Type, so just kind of like I said, you have to poke around and find where your menus are, sometimes where your panels have gone. But you should see it here, Text Wrap, and we get the Text Wrap panel to open up. And by default your Text Wrap is set with no text wrap. And it's got these great little icons that kind of show you what happens when you click on each. This one says it's going to wrap around the bounding box. This one's gonna wrap around the object shape, if your object has a shape, and it depends on what, if you've got a white background, a transparent background, we're also going to work with a clipping path in a minute, we did that in the intro class how to create one, now we're going to show how to wrap text around that. We can also jump the text over the object, we can also jump it to the next column or the next page. In this case I'm going to choose the first one, and just wrap around the bounding box. So we can see what happened is that it automatically pushed the text off. Now it looks a little strange 'cause it's nice and square over here because it's only left justified. I don't have right justification turned on. I can turn that on. I'm going to select all that text, and I'm gonna use a keyboard shortcut for justify which is command or control shift and J, or I can go to my Paragraph panel, and I just squared it up a little bit, which looks neater, but you'll notice what you get when you do that, you get these big gaps because obviously I've got a shorter line to work with, I've only got three words there, or only two and a half words, actually, and it needs to spread it out. So kind of look at it and think, "Which is more important? "Having a nice neat square, or having text "that's actually easy to read?" Well, is the purpose of this, is this a novel that we're reading the text? Yes. Maybe we need to favor the text and not so much the image, or maybe we move the image till it looks, sits in a better place, we can do that as well. So I'm gonna undo that and go back to that ragged right. So maybe I decide the image is a little too big. So let's make it smaller and maybe that will help a little bit because at least then we have more text on each line. And that looks pretty decent, it doesn't look bad, I don't think. Of course my text is shorter now. Where I had it before it lined up really nicely. Actually if I made it a little bit bigger it would line up perfectly. So I need to play with that. Now I can move this item up and down, as I do, it's going to wrap the text around it. Now in this case my text actually has, I mean, sorry, my image has a little bit of extra white buffer around it, but maybe it doesn't, maybe the image comes right to the edge. I might want to actually give a little buffer on the frame itself, and push the text out just a little bit further. So I'm gonna turn my guides on so we can see what's happening. When I select this item it goes back to the Text Wrap, and again I did it on the frame, so I made sure I selected the frame with the Selection Tool before I chose Text Wrap. I could wrap it around the image. In this case it's a big white background so it doesn't make any difference, so I just need to keep that in mind. But I'm gonna come over here to the offset and it's going to tell me how much space do I want to give on each. Now, I've got this same little icon that we've seen a lot. Make all settings the same. So if I know I want it to be the same, I can just use the up and down arrow keys, or put in a value. It's gonna use the up and down arrow keys and it made it the same all the way around, but sometimes you might find that you only want to push it off to the right or the left, you don't want to, 'cause anything any text frame, not just this text frame, any text frame that encounters this image will be affected by that text wrap unless we tell it otherwise. So I need to be careful, am I going to have a caption or something like that? If I'm going to have a caption down below, maybe I don't want to have that offset at the bottom, I don't want it to wrap on that because it will hit the caption frame and send the caption to overset text or something. So I may want to change that so that I'm only changing maybe a little bit more offset on the top and the bottom maybe. So maybe we have a little more space there, but keep it kind of tight next to the text, does that make sense? All right, so we can choose, pick and choose what we want for that. If we are using a shape that's not a nice circle, let's come up here to object, and I'm going to convert that shape to an ellipse. It didn't do that. Why did it not convert it to an ellipse? Probably because it has an image already in it, so we're not going to be able to do that. Let's actually just put an ellipse in there. I'm going to delete this image. Now let's go ahead and draw an ellipse in here. So when I do that, and tell it that I need a text wrap around that, oh, it's still doing it on the frame, that's weird. Let me grab it here, the image, I want to do it on the actual frame and tell it, all right, well I'm going to do it on my next sample, we won't do it with the circle because it's not playing nicely with me. So bring Alice back there. What I was going to show you is that when you have an irregular shape you don't get to choose top, bottom, right, and left, you just get to choose one amount. So we'll do that actually on the next page here and we'll put in some other images that we have in here. So instead of Alice, we'll go ahead and use, let's come here to this white cactus bloom that we've used in the intro class, and I'm gonna go ahead and just draw it a shape, and we'll make it kind of big, and again, it's just sitting on top. If I do text wrap, it's going to do it around the frame. Well, that's not really what I wanted. I wanted to do it around the flower shape itself. So I'm gonna zoom in a little bit and I'm going to go ahead and make a clipping path because this has a white background so I have to do that. Now I can either make a clipping path or I can make one in the text wrap field which is kind of nice. I selected the image, so either with the Direct Selection Tool or the Content Grabber, and I'm going to tell it wrap around the image. When I do that, that doesn't look very good. Why is that? Well, it's still wrapping around that frame and I need to tell it, Same as Clipping path. Well, I don't have a clipping path. So I could go make one if I wanted to, and use that, or if I have a Photoshop path in here I can do that. You notice I don't, it's grayed out, doesn't let me choose that, but it does say Detect Edges. So this is the same thing as creating a clipping path with Detect Edges. When I do that, it should be wrapping around it and it's still not. Same as Clipping, all right, so the white one doesn't have it, it's not actually letting me choose it. Let's create a clipping path really quick, and then I'm gonna do another one that has transparency already built in. Should have created it. So let's do a clipping path under the Object, we'll come down to Clipping Path. I'm going to go ahead and tell it to Detect Edges. And say OK. So now I have that image here. And it should be same as the clipping path, that's what we have now. If you notice, now it wraps around that particular object that's there. Now I only have one object, one size to choose from for the offset because it needs to do it around the entire object. So you can see the blue lines that are there, that's the amount of offset that we're using here. So I clip like that and when I let go I can see that it wraps around that object nicely. If I change the size of that object, it will also change the wrap as well, and again, sometimes getting it just right is difficult. You notice here, rabbit, it actually jumps it across here, so that's kind of weird. It hyphenates it, it's because that path is sticking into it. Now I can cheat a little bit if I want. That is an editable path so I can automatically grab that path that's there and instead of doing the clipping path which would show or hide the image, I'm going to come out here to the blue one and I can pull this down. It gets a little messy sometimes. But I can do it enough so that at least those words go back together. So I'm just kind of messing with this path a little bit. So you notice that wrapped around there a little nicer. I'd say that the text wrap is about 80% perfect. It's one of those things, and it's not so much that it's imperfect, it's that you're trying to work with leading that you have, sometimes you might notice that it looks really off here because something either sticks into it or because there's the leading, if it tells it to move a little bit, but then you've also got another line of leading, sometimes the gap will be larger on the right side than the left side, especially when you're working with multi columns like this. Gonna go back to page one here, and look at a couple of the other options that are here. We have Jump, so it actually jumps it so that it looks like you've created two single text frame columns. Now, keep in mind, it jumps from here to here. Now, if you wanted it to go across and across we'd need to have two separate text frames for that. So right now my text is going what is the use of a book down here, so you have to remember that's actually what's happening. I can also jump it so it goes to the next column or the next page. All right, so I can choose that. I can also, instead of that, I can invert it and the text only appears in the frame. Now why would you want that? I don't know. There's probably people that would say, "Oh, I have the perfect use for that!" I have never used that, but you can do that if you want to. You notice it also says wrap both the right and the left side. You can just wrap text on one side, or the other as well. So again you've got a lot of different options. Toward and away from the spine if you're using the spine, and also the largest area, and I don't know how that figures that at all. I don't think I've ever used largest area. I've used the right and left side, generally I jump it on both, and if I don't want it to be next to the text I just use the jump for that. We can see where you can actually have that wrap your text around get you some interesting layouts as well. The other thing is you can also hide, you can put this on a hidden layer, and even though it's on a hidden layer, it still works with the wrap. So I could put this on a layer that you can't see the flower, but it still wraps around the flower, so I've still got this nice flower shape in the middle, right? But like I said, sometimes the wrap doesn't look all that great, although this one doesn't look too bad, but it might look a little bit on the top, if I want to move this down I could either change the offset, or sometimes you move it down to fit one line and then the other line looks really crammed. There's actually a great script out there, I think it's called Wrap Nudger, and I love it because you put it in there and then you can leave the shape there and you can move the item within it so that the wrap looks good, and then move the image where you need it. The other way around that, if you don't want to use a script, is you could have one frame that's used to offset your text. You've got just a frame that is doing the text wrap, and then you've got the image in a different text frame on top of it that doesn't have text wrap, but then you're trying to maintain two separate frames. It's all right if you know you're going to put it there and leave it, but if you're going to make any changes, sometimes that's really, really difficult. All right, that's text wrap. We good on text wrap? All right. Let's do a little bit of type on a path, and I know if you saw the intro one we talked about this, but I'm going to do it here as well. Don't leave anybody out in the cold if they haven't seen it, righT? So we're going to do just type on a path. I'm just gonna create a real quick path. And I'm just gonna hold down my shift key and drag down. I'm using the Pen Tool, I'm holding down the shift key, and the shift key that keeps it in a nice, let's actually hold down the shift key and not the caps lock, Erica. So I'm gonna hold down the shift key. So you notice I can't, I can only work in 45 degree angles, so I know that I've got this nice, perfect wave that's here. All right, so I'm done with that. And I'm going to choose, under the Type Tool, I've got Type on a Path Tool. So I'm going to choose that, and I'm just going to roll over it till my cursor gets that little plus on it. And what that does is it's going to create a text frame. And if I select this, I can actually see that is a text frame. I can see my inflow port, and my outflow. So I could have it linked from a regular text frame to a curve, to a circle, to a regular text frame. So this can be part of a text link, it's perfectly fine. And this is my center point, and if you hit that you can kind of see that. And the center point, I was having trouble, if anybody saw the intro one, I was having trouble grabbing that center point and pulling it, 'cause you can switch the direction of the text so it's actually underneath the line instead of on top of the line, but sometimes when we have text you can't see that. So now I can use the Type on a Path Tool to click there. So I've got that text ready to go. I can also now use the regular Type Tool if I want, once I've got the cursor there. And I'm just going to fill with placeholder text and it just runs it along that stroke. I can also choose that stroke and tell it to go away, so I don't actually see it, but it is an editable stroke, I can work with that, do everything I would do with a regular stroke. Maybe just chill out the little curves there a little bit. Might work with that, I'm just playing with the handles, I'm using the Direct Selection Tool to change the points on a path, and I have that text ready to go. I've got my overflow text, you notice now it's too long? I changed that. I can click that. Once I actually click the little line that's there and there's the rest of my story that was there as well. So again it can be part of that text frame. I can also grab that text, let's grab that center, that's there, we have to find where the center is. Where did it go? Let's actually select this line and see where it went. I should be able to see it. But maybe I won't see it. It will give me that little down arrow, there it is right here. And when I pull it down, it actually flips it to the other side of the line. So if we were doing that with a circle, that's where we were having trouble. I made a circle. Let's make a circle, and we'll put a text, some text on that. And wherever you click is where it starts. It's gonna start at one of the points so we can even start it here if we want. And we'll just do that all around, the center point will be over here. Grab this, here's the center point, and if we drag it, it goes inside the circle. So you just need to decide how you want that. Now I can move this, this circle, I can grab these in ports. I've got to be careful though, you notice I grabbed it but it thought I was trying to actually pick up what was left of it. I'm going to move that item just a little bit and a little bit. So maybe you don't want it to go around the whole circle, so I can move the left and the right hand margins, is basically what I'm doing, and I'm making them smaller which is why I now have overset text as well. Does that make sense? So you don't have to have it take up the whole circle. And again, we can get rid of any coloring that we have on the circle, so we just have that information that's here. That make sense? We'll put a tight text effect on a path. All right, let's talk about some special characters. So what is a glyph? A glyph is just a character. So a glyph could be anything, it could be a letter, a number, a special symbol, punctuation, anything that takes up one character space in a font. So going back to those OpenType fonts, we may have 65,000 of them, and we won't use most of them but they'll be there in case we need them. So let's actually look at that. I'm going to go ahead and just, I have a text frame here, and I'm gonna open up the Glyphs panel, under the Window menu, under Type and Tables, under Glyphs. And I'm going to go ahead and see what I have available to me in that font. Now it's automatically in the font I'm using which is Trebuchet, I've got it at 20 points so we can see it nice and big. So it's automatically, that's what it's grabbed inside this, and I have it showing the entire font. That's what's there by default. Now if I scroll down, I can see what's in this font. Now, that font isn't huge. That was the entire font. Let's actually change it to something else. We're going to change it to an OpenType font, and I want something that's got a lot of choices. Maybe Museo Slab. I have all those different faces, just in the one font I have all those different ones. So I'll say let's change that, and I can see what's in there. So let's see what we have. Still not a whole lot, right? So let's try, let's go with like a Minion Pro if I have it. I don't have Minion Pro, why do I not have that? Let's take off Typekit, let's see what else we have. We'll come down here and see if we have a Minion Pro. There we go, let's use Minion Pro regular, and you notice I have several versions of the number two just to start with. I have like six or eight different versions of that, and if i roll over each glyph I can see the Unicode and the font ID. We're not going to worry about any of that right now, but what it does tell me is that it's a digit. Says it's digit two. This is great if you don't know what something's called. "Oh, right, parenthesis, is that what that's called? "I didn't know what that was called." You know, you can look at each thing which is actually kind of nice. You can also tell, "Is that an apostrophe, "or is that the foot or inch mark?" Right, so I can also make sure I'm using the right one for that 'cause I get confused with those. But I can look and see there's a lot of different digits. You know, it says capitals, this one is superscripts, so it's still a number two but it's superscript. Numerator, so it's in the numerator or the denominator, so if it's making fractions. So that's one thing you get a lot of times in OpenType, is that you can choose fractions and some of the fonts are smart enough that if it looks like a fraction it will build it as a fraction with superscript numerator and a subscript denominator and the nice, the actual fraction separator instead of a dash. It will actually create that for you. Some of them have fonts built in. It has 1/4th, 1/8th, things like that. So I can scroll down and see all the different items that are available. It's got a lot of stuff, it's got all the foreign characters, which is nice. It's also got ligatures, I'm sorry, ligatures, that sounded weird when I said it. So a ligature is actually one character, but it's when you've got two characters that come together like an F and an I, or F and L. If you want to use ligatures instead of having them kind of cram into each other it makes one character. And we can turn those on or off. I don't have to choose those necessarily in here, but I can see everything that's available. And this is what I do when I'm picking a font that I know I might want to use some of these features, I'm gonna go through and make sure I've got all the features that I need inside this font. They also have these subsets that I can choose. I can just look and say, "What currency do they have? "Okay, they have a lot of currency available to me." Some of them don't. Some have like maybe four or five. This has currency I don't even know what it is, so I'm set for whatever country I need to do a price, you know, a menu in or something. All right, so I have that, and I can choose from that. Well, what do I do with these once I get these fonts and find what I need? Let's actually show my entire font. When I want to use something special and I don't know the keyboard shortcut for it, I can just come over here and double click. And when I do that, let's actually make this, let's redo this, put that back. I wanted to select that and just make this bigger so we can actually see it, so we're just working with one character over there. So I just double click and that's how it ends up in my document. So if I don't know where something is, I can't remember where the copyright sign is, where it is on the keyboard 'cause there's a keyboard shortcut for it, I can just double click it over here. So that's great, what do I do with all that? Well, I can create my own subsets as well. So if I decide I want to have currency available to me, I can come in here and I can create a subset. So I'm gonna come over here to the panel menu and choose New Glyph Set, and let's just call this currency, because let's say I'm doing a whole price list and I've got it in three different prices, well I don't want to have to keep trying to find, all right, it's already there, we'll do CurrencyCL just so, I know I don't have that one. So I have that there, and I can say, "Okay, let's add something to the glyph set." So I can find one that I like, let's go ahead and find the yen symbol here, right, so we'll do that, and we'll say Add to Glyph Set CurrencyCL. We'll take the pound one, we want to make sure we're using the second one. I notice the second one, I've got three different sizes here, so I'll say that, add that to the glyph set, and we'll also do the cents, we'll add that one. Why we're not doing dollars, I don't know, but we're going to do that. So now I have that, so now I can just show it, I can just instead of putting it in there and looking at my most recently used ones, I can come in here and view my glyph set and that's all I see are those. So as I'm typing along, I can say, "Great, how many pounds is that? "It's one pound 99," I want to put the pound symbol in here before my one, and I'm going to double click on the pound. I'm gonna hit return, now I'm going to put the yen value, so I put that in there. Right, so I can go ahead and have those available to me in that glyph. So I can put those in a set if I need to to use them all the time, if that makes sense. Is that good? So glyphs are where all the secret characters live that may or may not be in a font. And that's really great again if you're doing something maybe that's more, that's more mathematical, you want just the mathematical sets that are there. We can look and see, this one has math symbols, has a lot of math symbols. Some of them don't. Some of them don't have many Greek symbols. Ornaments, are there any special ornaments inside this font? That's cool, because I don't want to have to necessarily go change out to Webdings or Zapf Dingbats when I want an ornamental symbol. If I have a font that has that built in, now I don't have to worry about selecting single characters and changing to that, I just need to, you know, come over here and double click and know that I have that special symbol available to me. So again, when I'm looking at a font I kind of want to see what is available to me. The other things that we can have with that OpenType is that we can put, like I said, we can do fonts, like for instance, I'm just gonna put one quarter, and then I'm gonna put something that's, you know, not a very standard font, I mean, sorry, a fraction, not a very standard fraction, and do that, but I want each one to actually look like a fraction. Well some fonts have things like a quarter or a half or an eighth built in if you type it, it will automatically set it up for you, but OpenType fonts are the ones that let you take anything that looks like a fraction and actually format it as a fraction, but I have to actually do a little extra work. I have to select the text, I go to the Character panel, which is missing, I'm going to reset my workspace and have it come back. I closed it up somewhere along the way. Under the Character panel menu, I have a choice called OpenType, and here's where I have all my OpenType features. So if it's in brackets, it means there are none available to me in that font. So I don't have any swashes. So some fonts have swashes, so you might have a capital A that is kind of just standard, or you might have one that has a big swoop at the beginning, the big swash, so you could change it so that you're using that version of the font. So it might have five different versions of each letter. One has a swash, one is, just different looks. Ordinals are when you have your numbers, you know, first, second, third, it's going to actually put that for you in formatting. This one has fractions, that's what I want to do is turn that on, and fractions, and now you notice it used that numerator and denominator. So I could have put those in individually, and put a slash in there, but this is better because it just says anytime it sees a number, you know, so if it does just a number as a normal number here and then as soon as I put a fraction on it, it automatically changes it to that number, right, so it automatically assumes that that's a fraction. Now what if I didn't want this to be a fraction? I need to actually turn that off. So I need to come here and tell it, don't use fractions, I want it to be normal numbers. So I have to actually select the fractions themselves and turn them on. If I don't think there's going to be any other numbers but fractions, I'm gonna turn it on for everything because the letters will just ignore it, but the numbers will all of a sudden think, "Oh I'm trying to make that into a fraction," if that makes sense. So you'll see it as you start working with it. But that's another thing that you can do with OpenType. Some of the other special characters that we have in there, and not just in OpenType, we have available to us in many of our fonts, are up under the Type menu. So you've got some special characters. You've got white space. You've got every kind of white space you could possibly want, things that you don't even know what they do, you don't understand them, but it's okay, they're all these different sized spaces basically. You are probably going to use em spaces and en spaces, those are good to get used to. You can also do a nonbreaking space, so it doesn't break if there's a space there and you want those words, you want those to stay together, you want it to be a nonbreaking space, you can put that in there. I tend not to use that, I use a no break feature usually. Hair space, sixth space, you don't, you're not going to use most of those. Maybe a hair space. I use that because when you use an em dash, in US English, anyway, you're not supposed to put any spaces on the side of the em dash. Well, sometimes some of those fonts just look a little cramped with a big em dash crammed up against the letters. I know in Britain they actually put a space, but we don't generally, so sometimes I'll put a thin space, or a hair space, just to give me a little bit of extra breathing room, but now I have to remember those extra spaces are there, so it's just a little higher maintenance. But if I want space, let's actually put some text in here otherwise we have nothing to look at. So instead of a regular space that I do with the space bar, I'm going to double click here and I'm going to go up to the Type menu and say insert a third space, whatever. So now it doesn't look a whole lot different, but sometimes you'll see something, let's put an em space in there, and that will actually look different. Put an em space in there, that's a big chunk because that takes up the space of a letter M. And when I look at hidden characters, so up under the Type menu, when I show hidden characters, I need to make sure I'm in the preview mode, you can see that the space dot, or the space icon is just a dot, but this is a dot with a line. Now, I don't know what those are. When I look at this and I see that it's a different white space, all I'm doing is saying why does that look different? Well, it's a different one. I don't know what kind of space that is, but it's not just a space bar space, you know, and so that, to me, turning that on, I can look and see, okay, this is a space. I can also see things like double spaces that I want to get rid of, you know, I can double check and say why does that seem like there's so much space there? Well, whoever typed it put in a double space, and you'll see that a lot of times after punctuation. So, there are ways to strip that out automatically as well, but I can turn that on and see, okay, I see what's going on. Something weird happened. But it does show you where these different special characters are. Which is super handy when it's white space and you can't see anything. Couple other special characters, we have some hyphens and dashes, you want to do an em dash or an en dash, you can't remember the keyboard shortcut, I know I have a hard time sometimes remembering. I can just use it here from this menu. I can also tell a discretionary hyphen or a nonbreaking hyphen. So I can put a hyphen in here and say, okay, this is a discretionary hyphen, maybe I say I always want to break it at this point, I can put in a discretionary hyphen. If it needs it, it puts it there, if it doesn't, it takes it away, but it won't break it anywhere else. Or I could say I really want, I never want the words grey eyes to break. So I can insert a no break character in here. So I can come in here and say special character, and say, I'm sorry let's go, oh sorry, the no break is in your Character panel for whatever reason, that's where it lives, no break. So now it will never break there, which is fine if I'm using ragged right, but if I'm using justified text that's gonna create some odd things. But you notice grey eyes always stays together on the same line, I don't want it to ever break. So you might do that with names, you might do that with URLs, things like that where you don't want it to split and break.