Reducing Noise, Sharpening and Correcting Distortion
All right another day of Lightroom. Let's take a look at what we've done thus far, 'cause we have a total of 20 days to work in Lightroom, and thus far we started out on our first week trying to get a firmer foundation of how to think about Lightroom because if you just start working in Lightroom there's a lot of questions you'll end up in your head with how many catalogs should you work with? Just how does Lightroom work? If I move a picture, what happens? You know, all those kinds of questions pop into your head. We wanted to make sure that you had a great way of thinking about all of that before we really dive too deep into Lightroom. We talked about working with collections and how something as simple as how you store your images, how you structure your folders, can completely change the way you think about your archives, your back catalog of images. Where if you think of a good system you can tell the progress of any image at any time. You can go back 10 years old folder, look at ...
it and instantly know what images are ready to show the public, what images still need work, that type of stuff, if you setup a good system. We've talked about basic adjustments so far and we're going a little deeper now. And what we're gonna do now is if you think about it on week two, once we progressed into that on the first day we talked about organizing projects and just organizing in general. Working with things like collections, flags and things. Then we went in and we started learning to make our images searchable. So we can tag text to each image to make it so we can very quickly find them. Then we worked on isolated adjustments, so if we only need to work on the face in an image, or the bottom portion of the image, whatever it happened to be we knew how to do it, so we could really tackle it. But really we're only two fifths done with class. Which means we have a whole bunch more to learn. In fact we have 12 days to go. Today what we're gonna get into is how to really refine the little things in your image. That means we're gonna talking about things like reducing noise, or sharpening, or correcting for distortion that was caused by the lens that you used to shoot your image. So I wanna pop right into Lightroom, spend as much time as we can in there, and so, let's get started. Just get in it. First I wanna mention something briefly, which is how to adjust more than one picture at a time. We've hinted at it on previous sessions, but I haven't shown you all your options that are there. 'Cause often times what happens is I have many images that are similar. They are shot probably in the same environment which means the color of light flooding into the room was identical across maybe 100 different shots. Well how can I color correct all those images at the same time? Or in this case I have images that were shot at sunset and I wanna make them all look like they're much more yellowish, really a lot more of a sunset feel to them. So what I'm gonna do is click on the first image, I'm gonna hold my Shift key and I'm gonna click on the last image of that series of images. Then I need to choose which image I'd like to be viewing at the time I apply my adjustments. So I'll just glance through them and say which one do I think really has the most potential? Maybe this one here. Then I'm gonna press the letter D to go to the develop module and we're gonna start adjusting our image. But before we do we're gonna glance down in the bottom right where we see our adjustment sliders, and that's where we're gonna find a little light switch down here at the bottom with either the word sync next to it or auto sync, and that's really important when you have more than one image selected. If auto sync is turned on like it is right now, it means any change I make to the image I might be viewing, will also be applied to all the other images that are selected. If on the other hand auto sync is turned off, then whatever change I make will only apply to a single image. Now in a previous session I had auto sync turned on when I did things. Like when we did some retouching on a panorama where the individual shots we retouched out little sensor dust specs. So for now I'm gonna have it turned off to show you what can you do if you forgot to turn it on, or if you didn't think about it until later on where you're like, wait a minute, this image look so great, maybe I wanna apply it to some others that I wasn't even thinking about at the time I was doing my adjustment. So I'm just do something random to this image to make it look different. What I'm gonna do in this case is take the color temperature and push it towards yellow to really make that vivid yellow. I'll see about also making it a little bit more orange. And I might make it also, bring up the vibrance just to really kick it up a notch here, and move some other sliders a little contrast boost. So if I wanna see what I've done to this image I'll hit the forward slash and you see the original picture, then I'll hit the forward slash key again and whoops. Hopefully we'll see it again. Actually it switched images on me. Let's just look at the end result. I wanna show you now how can I get that end result onto the other images? Since auto sync was not turned on, that means that it didn't automatically apply to them. But when auto sync is turned off you see the word sync here with three dots after it. Anytime you see three dots after something it usually means there are settings involved. So what I'm gonna do is instead of clicking the little light switch that's on the left edge of that, I'm gonna click right on the word sync. When I do, this comes up. And what it's asking is which settings specifically would you like to have applied to the other images that are currently selected? Because it might have been that the images were cropped differently. Some of them were cropped into squares, others were verticals and horizontals, and I might not wanna get the cropping to be consistent, so I might turn off the checkbox for cropping. It might be that they're shot with different lenses and if I've already gone through lens corrections on it to fix some of the problems with lenses I might not want to apply those things. But what I might really want to apply are these settings over here called the basic tone and color ones 'cause those are the actual settings that I was changing when I adjusted that picture. So it's a matter of deciding do you wanna apply absolutely everything or just a small subset of it. What I'll often do is go to the lower left and there's a checkbox there called check none and if I turn that on it turns off all these checkboxes for me and I'll just think about what was it that I really wanna apply to the other images. I do wanna apply white balance because that's what made the color shift in a nice way. I'm also gonna apply the basic tone things 'cause I know I adjusted contrast and a few of those other things. And I'll also apply color. Then I'll hit synchronize and when I do it's now applying it to the rest of the images and if I go back to the grid mode, do you see them slowly updating? And eventually they'll all be changed. And so what I had done is I, when I was adjusting my image, this setting in the lower right was not turned on to auto sync. If it was, at the moment I was moving those sliders, all of the images would have been changed. I noticed that it was turned off, so afterwards I hit sync and that's what brought me into here where I could tell it exactly what to copy. But now let's say I wasn't thinking about adjusting my images. I'll choose undo and let's say I wasn't thinking that way. Instead I was in here and there're different ways for me to get things copied. What I'm gonna do is get rid of the adjustments for most of these images. I'll deselect one of the images and what you can do is right click on images and there's a choice in here called develop settings. But let's see how we can do the same thing using this menu. First, I'm gonna come in here and choose reset. Reset means reset these all back to their default settings as if I never adjusted them. Now there's one of the images I didn't have selected. So you'll see that one that wasn't selected still has my adjustment. That's the one we're gonna copy it off of. So let's say I revisited this folder. It was a year after I made those adjustments, and I just noticed that one picture sittin' there that looked great and I wish that that same look was on the others. So I go to that image, I right click on it, I go to develop settings, and I say hey, let's copy those settings. You notice copy settings has three periods after it. That means it's gonna ask me for settings. And it brings me to the exact same spot where I could tell it exactly what I'd like to copy. I choose copy and now to apply it to the other images I can come over here and just select them. I'll hold Shift to get the end one, and now I right click on them once again, go down to develop settings and paste settings. That's the other way to get it to apply to the others. It's really doing the exact same thing that we did when we were in the develop module and we hit the little sync button. You just always have more than one way to get to various features within Lightroom. Then let's talk about another feature that I use quite frequently when adjusting images and that is I'll be in Lightroom, I'll be experimenting, and I get the image to a point that I really like and I'm just not sure if I can get better than this, and I'm worried that any further changes might mess it up. If I ever get to that point, when I'm in the develop module I go to the left side of my screen, and on the left side of the screen that's usually where you have a history of what you've done to your image, but you also have this area called snapshots. To the right of the word snapshot is a plus sign. If I click that it will just default to putting in the date, but you can put in any name you want. And I'll just call this whatever I'm thinking of when I think of that version. I'm gonna click create and now on the left side of my screen when I go to snapshots that'll always be there. And what would it allow me to do is now regardless of what I do to this image in the future, if I ever wanna get back to this exact same look, all I'm gonna have to do is come over and click on the name of that snapshot. So for instance right now I'll reset some of these settings or just randomly move sliders to make it obvious that this image looks quite different. And I'm like aw man I think I screwed it up and I wish I knew how to get back to that previous stage. Well if I go to the left side of my screen there's the snapshots. I just click right on that snapshot and just about instantly I'm back. So all it's doing is in your Lightroom catalog file, if you remember when I talked about what's in that file, part of what's in it is just text that describes where you left the adjustment sliders last for each image. And it just made a separate set of those instructions that has the name of the snapshot sitting there. Waiting for you to be able to get back to it at any point. And you can have as many snapshots as you'd like. So I might further experiment with this and say well what happens if I push the white balance over and get more of a orangish look? Maybe a purple orange? And just keep experimenting until I get another significant variation on the image. And it could be that I'm not sure, maybe I'm doing this for a client and I'm not sure what kinda look they want. So I get to this, I go back to the right side, and I simply create another one. And I can make as many as I want. But what's special about a snapshot is when you go back to typing the letter G to go back to your grid. In this case you might see more than one image, that's just because that's what I had here before. I had a couple copies. But usually you're only gonna see one version of the image when you look at the grid. And if you wanna see the other variations you'll have to go to the develop module and you'll have to click between them here. You can instantly switch. So what I do is whenever I think I'm done with an image, I usually add a snapshot because who knows when I might change that image in the future and why I might be doing it. I might be just demoing something for a class like this and it might mess up some image that I perfectly adjusted years ago and I wanna be able to quickly be able to get back. So whenever I think I'm done I usually add a snapshot. And if you wanna just work variations on the image, just add more snapshots. So then let's look at refining our images. I'm gonna take an image, press D to go to develop and I'm just gonna optimize this image to my preferences. In this particular case I find the dark portion of the image is a bit too dark; I can't see any detail there. I'd like to see a little bit of the detail so I'm going to bring up the shadow slider to see if I can see any of the detail on the shadows. I might also bring up my exposure a little bit and just see if I can get what I'd like. The brightest area up in here is looking a little too bright so I'll bring down the shadows and I'm just experimenting to see if I can get a different interpretation of this image. But the problem is any time you end up brightening the dark portion of an image, the dark portion of an image is usually where noise is lingering. And that noise wasn't very noticeable when the dark portion of your image was almost black, 'cause you couldn't see any detail that was in there. But the moment you bring it up and you make it easier to see what's in the dark portion of the image, if you click to zoom up, I can see a tremendous amount of noise in here. And so let's talk a little bit about noise reduction. This first thing about noise reduction is there's something else going on in Lightroom that's making your noise look worse than it usually would, and let's find out what it is. I'm in the develop module and on the right side of my screen we have all these different sections. This time we're gonna dive into a section called detail. I'll expand the area called detail and I notice that that's where we both have sharpening and we have noise reduction. And I'm not gonna start with noise reduction. I'm gonna start with sharpening because if you look at the default settings for sharpening which is what these, oh actually these aren't, let me. Okay we're at default settings now. You'll notice the default setting for sharpening is not zero, which means with default it is exaggerating the detail everywhere. Well when you have an image like this one, in the dark portions of the image, the only part where we have detail that's really usable are on the edges of these various areas. The other areas, these big expanses, I can't see the texture of whatever material is there. There's no real fine detail there. The only thing I can really see is noise. And so the problem with having these sharpening settings is they are exaggerating the noise that's there. Making it worse than it could be. So the first thing I do when I have a noisy image is I go down to a setting down here called masking. When masking is set to zero, you're entire image is sharpened and that means if you have a blue sky in your image where there's no clouds, there are no birds, all it is is blueness, it's still trying to sharpen any detail that's there, and the only detail that's usually in a solid blue sky is noise. So here's how we can prevent it from sharpening the noise. When you go to the masking slider, when you bring it up, as you get higher and higher it starts not sharpening things that are really similar to each other. The really barely perceivable detail that's in your image is ignored. And only the more dramatically different areas are sharpened. But I wanna be able to see where it would sharpen the image, and here's how you do that. If you hold down the Option key on Macintosh, that's Alt in Windows, and you click on the masking slider, watch what happens. You'll get a different view of your picture. Any area that's white when you're holding down the Option key and moving the slider, will be sharpened. And so when masking is set to zero you'll see that the entire image will be sharpened. As I bring this up you will see more and more areas within my image turning black. Black means an area that will not be sharpened. So what I wanna do is glance at the image and say where is there usable detail? Useful detail. And I would say out here there isn't. I can't see the texture of this stucco or whatever this material is, but I can see the detail right here on the edge where there's a transition. So I hold down my Option key, I bring up masking until the areas where I really couldn't see useful detail turn black, but the area where I did true detail is still white. And here I can see white on the edges of those beams and things. By doing that now we're not exaggerating the noise as much as we were before. And so that's the first thing I do whenever I think about noise. The second thing I'm gonna do is go into this area called noise reduction. And there's two kinds of noise you have in your image. There's a luminance noise where the little specs that show up in your image as noise just vary in brightness, and then there's color noise where any variation in little specs are variations in color. It's what I usually call Christmas tree lights. It's where, just looks like all sorts of different colored specs. In this particular image I'm not seeing colored specs so I'm gonna stay away from the slider called color. You notice that the default setting for color though is not at zero. If you were to bring it all the way down you might start seeing some colorful specs. Not so much in this image though, but in a lot of images you would. Now I'm gonna come up here to luminance and I'm gonna bring it up until this noise is either gone or it's not objectionable anymore. It's not that I always wanna get rid of the whole thing though. Once I get to a point where the noise is no longer objectionable, then I'm gonna experiment with a slider called detail. Detail will try to bring detail back into your image, emphasizing it, and what we wanna do is try to find the highest setting that doesn't bring the noise back. So I might crank detail all the way up and see if the noise comes back. And if it does I'll have to back off on it a little bit until we find the highest setting that doesn't bring the noise back. You're gonna find that the setting called contrast isn't gonna do a lot for most images. It's only on some images that you're gonna find a subtle difference with it, so it's not critical for most. It's mainly the luminance until we get it so the noise is no longer objectionable and then trying to find the highest setting for detail so that we maintain as much detail as we can while still getting relatively effective noise reduction. And so anytime you end up dramatically brightening an image you're gonna wanna take that image and do noise reduction on it. And so let's take a look at another example. In this image if I were to just hit the reset button, do you see how dark it used to be? If you need to really brighten up an image that's got areas that are that dark, I'll choose undo, by the time you do you're gonna definitely need to look into the darkest part of the image. Because all your digital cameras ends up delivering more and more noise and it gets into the darker and darker areas. Usually it's relatively hard to see, but when you brighten those areas up dramatically, it's gonna be a problem. So again the first thing I do is I make it over to sharpening to make sure I'm not exaggerating the noise. If I look at this image and you look in the sky, I don't think the sky has any useful detail. Can you see any wisps of clouds or anything else like that? I don't. I don't think the fabric has much useful detail except for right here where these little folds are that are recognizable. But in this area here I can't see the weave of fabric or anything that would be really great detail. So the first thing I do is I go to masking and I hold down the Option key, Alt in Windows, I click and bring it up until the areas that don't have useful detail, turn black. And I try to find a good balance between that and keeping white on the areas that do have useful detail. Maybe about there. Then I come down here for my noise reduction and I'm going to bring it up and see if I'm gonna be able to deal with this, and it's not a matter of always completely getting rid of it 'cause if you do sometimes the image just looks soft. So I don't mind having noise, it's just I don't want so much of it where it's the first thing I'm thinking about when I look at those areas. On some images you're gonna find when you're moving this slider around it doesn't seem to be all that responsive. Keep an eye out at the bottom of your screen. If you find it's not responding and look right about here. If you see a little icon appear there, it'll look like a little circle that whirling around, it means it's still thinking. And so if I move this way up, do you see the little whirly down there that down there just for a second? Know that some people get kind of impatient. They move the slider around constantly saying this thing isn't doing anything. And they never really let that little wheel stop spinning. So if I turn it down a little bit I gotta wait for that to stop, and I'm trying to find. Okay, that's a little objectionable, I'll keep going a little higher. And about there I'm not minding the luminance noise, meaning the variation in brightness. But what I do see in here is the color looks a little artificial to me. It looks almost like his shirt had a pattern to it that I don't think was actually there. And so what I'm gonna do afterwards is come down this time to this area called color. Now if what I saw was tiny colored specs I would bring up the color slider. Now if I bring this all the way down we might be able to see them on this image. Not so much. So I'll bring that back, oh there we go. Do you see the colored specs? So this, bringing up the color slider can help reduce or eliminate those, but there's only so much the color slider can do. At a certain point you'll find that all the tiny specs of color seem to be dealt with and now there's more large shapes of color. When it's large shapes of color that's left, you wanna come down to a slider called smoothness and experiment with it. If you bring it up higher you might find that you end up with a little less variation in the color, like right now do you see his shirt no longer feels like it has kind of a pattern of weird shapes of color. And so, whereas if I brought it down it almost looked like he was wearing a plaid shirt or something once this updates. Yeah now I can see more little kinda red blobs. So smoothness is gonna deal more with those larger blobs of color, and see if you need to blend them in with the rest of the image. Then if there was any fine detail in the image like the detail up in here and you notice the colors starting to kinda blur together where the green in one area and yellow that's next to it seem to be too similar to each other and they used to look more distinctly different, that's when you deal with detail. And you can bring detail up, I don't know if I'm gonna notice a big difference in this particular image, but if I bring detail up I might be able to see more of a distinct difference in color between those things, and I just wanna not bring it up so high that my noise reduction is reduced. Right now I can see the specs that came back in here. So my detail is too high at the moment. I usually look for the highest setting that still let's the noise reduction be effective. And once you find it, that's about as good as you're going to get. There are other tools that can be better at noise reduction. If you ever find plugins for Photoshop that are designed specifically for doing noise reduction and that's all they do for the most part. They will often have more sophisticated algorithms for doing it because that's all they're designed to do. And so there's one from, I think one's called Define which is from Nik Software which is now owned by Google, which I think they made free last week. So that's one where if you have some problem images that Lightroom just doesn't seem to be able to tackle, you might wanna try a program like that. There are others as well. But then let's look at a few others ideas. And we'll come back to some other areas at other sessions too. But let's look at distortion that your lens might cause in an image, and how we can correct for it. So first let's talk about an extreme case. In an extreme case what we might have is an image like this one. This was shot with a fisheye lens, where you buy the lens for the distortion it gives you. Where any straight line that gets closed to the edge of the frame gets totally bent. Well when that's the case if you want to correct for it by chance, let's say it was the only lens you had that would be able to give you the wide view you wanted. What you could do is instead of working in the detail area, you would work in an area called lens corrections. And in lens corrections there's one checkbox here called enable profile corrections, and if I turn that on let's see what happens. Do you see how suddenly it straightened out my fisheye lens? Where now any lines that were near the edge of the frame, they no longer bend. It's pretty crazy it can do that. Now it's not gonna be able to do that for every single fisheye lens in existence. Because this says enable profile corrections. And a profile is actually a little file on your hard drive that describes how that particular lens distorts things. And they only have profiles for so many lenses. You can see what's going on if you go to this little area called profile. It'll tell you that it looked at the file that you had and it figured out that it was shot on a Canon camera, and that was shot with a Canon 15 millimeter lens, and it was shot on this particular camera, and it had a profile where they had tested that particular lens and that kind of a camera, and so they knew how it distorted things. But had I bought a fisheye lens that was an off brand one, a brand you've never heard of before, it was really cheap or something, they probably have never profiled that and so it might not be able to correct for it. But I didn't have to do anything to dial these in. It automatically looked that up, the moment I turned on the checkbox that was called enable profile corrections and that checkbox is found in two places; under the basic section you have it right here, and also under profile. It's the same checkbox. Now I don't know if I have an example image that is easily accessible right now, but there is a situation where you'll wanna do something special here that I wanna describe. I shoot with a Sony camera these days, and some of the Sony cameras you can actually use Nikon and Canon lenses with them. You can use a little adaptor and with that adaptor you can put on other lenses, and that's how I shoot these days. Got a Sony camera, what's called a Metabones adaptor, and a Canon lens. And the problem with that is when I have an image that was shot with that kind of a setup and I turn on enable profile corrections, it looks at the data for that and it gets confused. It says, what? Sony camera, Canon lens? Makes no sense. And so it doesn't automatically dial in anything over here. Here's how I fix that. If I have something where I'm using a non standard lens, a lens that it probably has a profile for, but it's not being used on the kind of body that it's used to. Then what I end up doing is when I load that image I manually come over here and I say well I'm gonna see if it has a profile for anything that is the Canon brand and over here I'll say is this particular lens, I just choose it from this list, these are all the lists they have profiles for, hopefully the lens I'm using on my Sony body is listed here. And then there is a little popup menu right here called setup and it says default. And if I click I can choose this. What this means is I manually told it what kind of lens that was being used because it wasn't able to automatically look it up. It got confused, Sony camera, Canon lens. As long as it had a profile for that particular lens, I choose this: save new lens profile defaults. And if I do, from now on whenever I use that Sony camera with that particular 15 millimeter Canon lens, when I turn on enable profile corrections, it now can look it up because I kind of educated it about that. And so I have three different Canon lenses that I use so I need to find three different pictures; one shot with each one of those lenses and go through this process. And after I've done that, then I no longer have to manually dial it in when I'm using a lens adaptor. So that won't apply to everybody, but it will apply to the people that use the small mirrorless cameras and adapt lenses from other systems on to it. Let's get away from that and talk about just what the lens profile is doing in general. The lens profile is doing three things in general, but we'll talk mainly about two of them. One is it's correction for distortion. As you saw here with a fisheye lens, it unbent the fisheye lens. Well other lenses like wide angle lenses and telephotos, they distort your images much just not to a big of an extent. If you have architectural images where the pictures of buildings have very nice, straight, vertical lines, you'll find that on some lenses those are not perfectly straight, they're slightly bowed out or inward. And turning on the lens profile correction checkbox will hopefully correct for that. The other thing that happens it is also will brighten the corners of your image, because with most lenses it can deliver more light to the center of the frame than it can do the outer edge. So if you happen to not want to correct for all of those things, then right here is where you can tell Lightroom that you didn't want to. For instance let's say with this particular image I wanted the look of a fisheye lens, but all I wanted it to do is correct for how dark the corners were on the image. Well then all I'm gonna do is take this slider called distortion and turn it down to zero, and that means do zero correction for distortion. And I'll leave this setting called vignetting 'cause that's the darkening of the corners of your image, I'll leave it at 100 to say apply it at normal strength. Or I can even do weird things. I can push the distortion slider further and it'll give me the opposite of a fisheye, like bending it the other direction. The reason you might wanna do that is when they make a profile for a lens, that profile is accurate for one lens, the lens they tested. And that particular lens might be slightly different than the one you own. It's he same model, the same make of it, but yours maybe was made a few years later and it might be that it has a slightly different amount of distortion. So you could customize it. You could say with my lens maybe I've dropped this lens a few times or something, and something's as little bit different about it, you can say I need to just have a little bit stronger correction for it 'cause it's not quite the same as that profile. And you can do the same thing for vignetting. Maybe you wanna only correct for the fisheye lens and not have it brighten the edges of the picture to get them consistent. Let's look at a few other examples. Here when I took this photo I tilted my camera up a little bit. And in tilting my camera up it made it so this vertical line on the sides, which in real life are perfectly vertical, least I think they're close, they ended up starting to converge and that's typical. So there are other things we can do. Just turning on enable profile corrections is not gonna fix that. It's gonna fix how dark the corners of the image was and if it was curved on this edges, but then there's another area down here called upright, and it might be able to fix this. Upright has a few different choices and the one you usually start with is called auto, and when you click it it's going to look for vertical or horizontal lines, or at least things that are near vertical or horizontal. And if it thinks that they're converging as if you tilted your lens a little bit, it will try to correct for it. So I'm gonna click the auto button and let's see what happens. Do you see how in this particular case it didn't do a very good job? It thought it was crooked and all that. So I'll click off. If this part called upright does not work very well, I'll show you how to do it manually. Before I do, let's just make sure it can work on some images. I'll go to a different image and in this other image I'll just brighten this up a little bit before we adjust it. And then let's see if it can handle it. Do you notice that I titled up on this image so the verticals on the building are not straight? I hit auto, and now do you see how it corrected for it? And there's a checkbox here called constrain crop, we talked about that when we were in the crop tool, but if I turn it on it'll crop in so we don't have any of that extra things. It's not always perfect, so we have some other choices down here below. If you are only trying to make sure something was level we have that choice so it would straighten our picture. We could have it only think about the verticals that are in that are in an image by clicking on the word vertical or we can choose full, which would both make verticals and horizontals try to be true, and if you shot an image at an angle like I did here, full probably won't be a good option, and sometimes will produce unusual results. But if the results from any of these things is not exactly what you need, here's how you can fine tune it. I might try auto first just 'cause it's fast an easy. In this case we saw it messed up. Afterwards instead of using auto, I can come over here and use manual. When I go to manual we have some controls. Mainly the ones we're gonna use are vertical and horizontal. So if I come in here and choose vertical, drag it. I get a grid on top of image so it makes it a little easier to tell when it is straight. But now can you tell that those vertical lines are much closer to being straight? If I wasn't perfectly lined up left to right, it was at a slight angle, I could've just horizontal and it'll act like I might straighten that out. But in this case I don't think I needed it. I'll turn on constrain crop again and now we're in there a little tighter and our verticals are nice and straight. You can combine these ideas together. Let me show you how in one image here they were combined together. I'll go to my lens corrections on this image and I'm just gonna turn 'em off with off with a little checkbox here. I'll also need to get rid of my cropping. So this image was shot with a fisheye lens. And so when I went in to my lens corrections, turn those back on. Lens corrections. There was a bunch of things that was needed to be done. Let's take a quick look at them. The first thing I did was over here when I turn on enable profile corrections that corrected for the fisheye lens. So do you see how instead of having bent sides we have straighter lines? But the camera was titled up so I had to go over to manual and over there I used a slider called vertical to see how much of that, how close can I get to correcting for that? I can't get it to be perfectly straight up and down, but I can make it so it's a lot less messed up. I might constrain my cropping to bring it in. But do you see how it cut off the top? There's a choice in here called scale, which will let you get back some of that stuff. There. Then if you notice down here at the bottom. Can you see the bottom of this edge, got a bigger gap over here than it has over there? Can you tell if you compare the two sides? So we have a choice called rotate, and if I use that I can get it so the gap on both sides is relatively consistent. Then I get out of my crop tool and I can see my end result. And before remember it was a fisheye lens so we had quite curved edges to it. So you can see you can all sorts of things by doing your lens corrections. The majority of the time though, you'll just be under the basic tab, you'll go here to the area called upright and you'll probably hit auto, and if that doesn't quite do it you might hit the word vertical, and only when this completely fails you do you go over here to manual. I never want to work with these things, but I'm really happy that they're there. The choice called distortion will also kinda bend your image. Kinda like fixing for the fisheye. So if you had a lens that they don't have a profile for and you noticed it bends things, you could experiment with that a little bit. And if they also didn't have a profile for your lens and you found it really dark in the corners, you do have lens vignetting down here. This would end up brightening or darkening the corners of your image, and so you could try to compensate for it. One other important thing that is found in that area is that if you're ever working on an image and you zoom up close on it, you may find that when you zoom up close on certain areas that you'll find weird colors appearing. And if we look at this particular image when I zoom up close, can you see green on this edge? I don't know if you guys can see that easily. I also see red on this edge. I see red right there. That's also a problem introduced by your lens and it's called a chromatic aberration. It's just like sending light through a prism where if you send white light through a prism it comes out looking like a rainbow of colors. And this is doing the same thing just to a lesser extent. It's starting to separate the colors a little bit and we get those edges. So to correct for that we also have a checkbox that is found under lens corrections, and it's this one right here: remove chromatic aberration. If I turn that on it's going to attempt to reduce or eliminate that. And that's something I turn on in almost every image that I adjust. If you turn that on and you still find little halos of color, most of the time you'll find that those halos of color will be purplish and let me see if I can undo a setting here 'cause I think this image usually has them. I'm gonna look over here, yeah. Do you see a little hint of purplish magenta on the edge of this? I'm getting that even after turning on the checkbox called remove chromatic aberration. If you ever get that where you got a purplish or sometimes it's a greenish thing left over, there is a more advanced tool here we could use. What it is is it's called defringe, there's a bunch of sliders. You don't have to think about the sliders. Just grab the eye dropper. That eye dropper will move these sliders for you. And all you need to do is move your mouse into the area that has the purple on it. Get that right in there to where the purple is the most intense, and click. And it will figure out where to move these sliders to target that purple and try to lesson it. It's not gonna be on all that many images you get it, but when that happens it can be really annoying if you don't know how to fix it. So that's known as a chromatic aberration. So there's all sorts of corrections we can make with lens correction. Sometimes it's just from tilting your camera, sometimes it's by the lens that you buy, and it's usually not your fault what happens. Often times it's just the way the lens is built and that ends up giving us an idea of how to correct for it. Tells you how to do a little bit more subtle refinement. So let's think about then what kind of homework could we have for this? Well with homework we have practice images. If you purchase this course you can end up downloading Lightroom catalogs that have sample files in them where I end up putting challenging images in there. So instead of having to search through your image archive to look for an image that might have those little chromatic aberrations on the edge where you can use that eye dropper and click, I give you one to work with. So if you purchase the class you end up getting a nice catalog full of images to practice each technique on so that by the time you end up running into that problem on your own images, you're good to go, you've already practiced, and you're comfortable doing it. Now if you think about what we've been up to, we have 11 days left in this class which means we have a whole bunch more to cover. What we're gonna get into in future days are things like converting to black and white, getting your images to appear on a map, so if you don't remember the name of the place but you visually remember where it is on a map, you'll be able to find it. We'll talk about doing things like stitching panoramas right in Lightroom and doing things like troubleshooting. So we have a whole bunch left to get into. And then finally if you wanna find me on social media, here are the various sources for social media. If you wanna see my latest photography then you can visit any one of these sites. And if you wanna go to my main website, that's found at digitalmastery.com. So we got one more day done. We have quite a few days left. I hope you're gonna tune in the for the next one 'cause I know you have a lot more to learn.