Adobe® Photoshop® Deep Dive: Filters

Lesson 1 of 16

Smart Filters and the Filter Gallery

 

Adobe® Photoshop® Deep Dive: Filters

Lesson 1 of 16

Smart Filters and the Filter Gallery

 

Lesson Info

Smart Filters and the Filter Gallery

So in photography filters or the round little doodads that you screw onto the end of your linens to create special effects in photo shopped there little applications that run inside of photo shop and that you can also use them to make special effects you can run them on image layers, smart objects, vectors type players, shape players, layer masks, et cetera, et cetera, et cetera. Text we're going to some of that, so we're going to cover most every filter that's inside of photo shop I think the last time I counted that was around sixty seven filters, and I've come up with a practical use for nearly every one of them. So that's what we're going to do today but first let's talk about canadian bacon challenge this's my newest analogy for smart objects isn't it nice? So if you run a filter on a smart object, it will run on destructively on your document so it runs in its own little space and the layers panel so you don't have to worry about it messing up your original. This gives you a lot ...

of flexibility because basically what a smart object is is it's a container that protects whatever is inside of it, whether that's a raw image vector image text what have you so basically you can open a file is a smart object or you can convert one layer or many layers into a smart object, and when you do that, just like the cellophane wrapping you see around this canadian bacon, it protects what's inside of it. So any re touches or effects, air filters, et cetera, et cetera, et cetera that you do to that smart object happens to the container and not what's inside of it, so it's inside of it is protected much like this canadian bacon here. If we were to take this package and paint over it, then the pain would be applied to the container or the cellophane plastic, right instead of what's inside of it are canadian bacon would not have any paint on it, which is very important when it comes to canadian bacon. Also, if we were to throw this package of canadian bacon into a mud pile on, the mother would get all over the package, not the canadian bacon, so that is similar to what's happening with smart object. So anyway, we're gonna be using smart objects throughout the day. So in the filter menu there's an option tio command rather to convert for smart filters. And all it's doing is wrapping whatever is in that layer and us protective covering just like this packaging here. So whatever you do next is going to happen to the package, not what inside of it meaning you can always get out of it you can lower the opacity of just the filter that we're going to apply tio what the container of that layer we can change its blend mode of just the filter so that changes how color interacts from one layer to the next blends with or cancels out so we're going to be using smart objects so that we run our smart we went our filters in a smart way not destructively all right let's get started here so let's pop on over to photo shop and again when you purchase of course you get all of these files so let's open up an image and let's spend just a moment sitting at photo shops preferences and then we're gonna talk about the filter gallery so here's an image that I got in rome a few weeks ago the coliseum and what we're going to do right now is take a peek at the filter menu and depending upon if you've changed his preferences are not your filter man you may look different in mind so what I want to do is help you get your setups that it looks exactly like mine so we can follow along back in photo shop cs gosh it was either status five or cia six did we tidied up the filter menu and removed a bunch categories from it so what we want to do is add them back so let's trot over to the photo shop menu if you're on a mac or the edit menu, if you're on a pc and let's, choose preferences, then from preferences. Let's, choose plug ins, so you want to make sure that this top option is on right here show all filter gallery groups and names in the filter menu, so if we turn it off and click ok, our filter mini becomes greatly shortened, so you can see the difference so let's, just make sure that you turn it on again. If you're on a mat, go up to the photo shot many and she's preferences. If you're on a pc, go up to the edit menu instead and she's preferences, and then you want to pick plug ins, and you want to make sure that the check box is turned on to show all filter gallery groups and names. What happens when this has turned off is that thiss the smart filter that we're goingto end up with an ar layers panel will not have the name of the actual filter all too safe filter gallery, which is rather generic. So I like keeping this turned on, because that way, when I choose those individual filters from the re populated filter menu, then in my layers panel, I can see exactly what filter iran on that image, which is a little bit faster than having a double click the darn thing and then wait for the filter gallery to open and see what the heck filter you ran so that's why I like to keep these turned on so we'll go ahead and click ok to get out of that next was spent just a couple of minutes talking about the filter gallery itself it's a fabulous way to experiment with your filters because it gives you a nice big preview of what the image is going to look like sugi commit to that filter so over here in the layers panel I'll expand this just a little bit so we can see it we're talk just for a second about how these exercise files or set up you can see here in my layers panel that I have the filter gallery applied to this layer so that's you can think of that as the final layer so when you're practicing when these exercise files at home let's turn off the layer visibility of the final layer that I created for you and I've also duplicated my original layers here underneath it so that you can easily we do what I'm about to show you to do so so first of all we're going tio turn these layers into a smart object so that we run our filters non destructively so your document here is comprised of many layers so we're gonna do is click to activate one of them either the top one or the bottom line and then shift click toe activate the top one or the bottom one depending upon what you did first so you want to activate all the layers that you want to run the filter on because filters really just run on a single layer so we have to do something tio compressed all of those layers into a single layer in which we can use our filters and with smart objects like we talked about a moment ago that lets us run filters safely because it's going to run on that container not on what's inside the container canadian bacon so now that we have on the layers active and you don't even have to double click the background layer tio make it editable if you have a lot to background layer and your document so now that we have these active let's come up to the filter menu and choose convert for smart filters and as you can see in our layers panel we have a single layer from many we also have a little special icon at the bottom right of the layer thumbnail that lets you know that hey, this is indeed a smart object now we're ready to run our filters so it's been just a moment talking about the filter gallery so let's go up back up to the filter menu and choose filter gallery and immediately the world's largest dialog boxes going to commandeer your screen but you've got a nice big a preview of the image here you can click and drag within this preview to position it so that you can see a different part of your image. You can use the zoom controls at the very bottom left of this dialogue down here or this field right here, but I like to use the keyboard shortcut for zooming in and now so while we're in this dialog box we can press command minus zem out or control minus on a pc or command plus on a mac control plus on a pc to zoom back in so those air handing keyboard shortcuts freed and memorize and as you can see in the middle of the style log box, we have several categories of filters, so to see what's inside those categories just single click the little flippy triangles that are to the left of their names and as I click any one of these little previews just single click not double click, then I get a nice idea of what that filter is actually going to look like. Should I choose to run it so that's a nice thing you'll also notice settings for that particular filter over here on the right hand side, great for experimenting with these things and down here a museum and you can see it is the filter that we just clicked on, so you can see that we have paint jobs highlighted right here, and we have what photoshopped calls and effect layer here inside the filter gallery dialog box, and if I scroll down to the bottom of the screen bottom of that dialogue box, rather, you can see I've got a couple of handy icons here. One is to add another effect, slayer that's, right, you can add, you can't stack your filters up here in the filter gallery and toggle the visibility of each individual effect layer often on, so we're not in the layers panel were in the filter gallery dialog box if you add, if you want to add another effect or another filter than this click vessel icon, it looks like a piece of paper with a dog eared corner, and when I scroll up, you can see that I haven't duplicated the first effect layer. Does that mean you're stuck with two rounds of that particular filter? Absolutely not, but when you do, click that adnan effectually your icon at the bottom of the filters filter gallery dialog box, it is going to do a straight duplication of the last field for iran, but to change it to something else, just give it a click so we could come over here and click the sponge filter and watch how that effects layer is going to change, so now we've applied to filters. We're previewing rather two filters on top of our image, and this is really one of my favorite ways to get a painting. Look, I used to do this all the time before the oil paint filter came along and see a six so let's just do that one more time. Let's, add another effect layer and your you'll see that it's going to add duplicate that sponge layer. Why don't want two rounds of the sponge layer or sponge filter? Rather so let's go over and click. Another filter under painting is a nice one. Tio give a little texture, tio an image that you're trying to make it look like it's really a painting. And of course, you can experiment with all the different settings over here on the right hand side. Now let's say that we liked the way the image looked a moment ago, before we added that under painting filter so that effects layer is active, and I know it's active because it's dark gray. Then all we have to do is once it's active is click the little trash can icon at the bottom of the filter gallery, and that deletes that effects layer now you can also rearrange these effects and that will or filters rather and that will change the look of your image, and it works exactly the way that it does in the layers panel, so you just click and drag one layer. So what? Move the sponge layer below the paint jobs, and then we'll see how our preview updates and it'll change the look of our image somewhat, just like the stacking order in your layers panel the stacking order here of filters in the filter gallery matters. So whatever is on at the top of that effects stack, if you will, is what is showing on top of your image some now the sponge effect that we applied is a little bit toned down because it's underneath the paint jobs filter so it's kind of like a many layers panel right here, but you're just dealing with the filters and that's it. So this is a great way to experiment in the settings or sticky in the style of bach. So if I make changes to the sponge filter settings here, the next time I come into this filter gallery and I choose sponge than those settings were going to be what I used last time, so they stay tension till you change them back, so don't let that three. And that's really all there is to the filter gallery here's a little scroll bar down at the bottom that you can use to move around within your image if it's larger, then what you can show in the preview window but you can enlarge the size of this dialogue box if you've got a bigger screen, you can make it fit so you can see your whole image in here so I love the way this painted looked looks on the coliseum so any kind of architectural shot with a lot of variation in color is a great candidate to do what we just did so let's do that one more time I'll nd so that we're back in our original document so all we did was click and then shift click to activate all the layers that we want to turn into a smart object and then we go up to the filter menu cheese convert for smart filters now we've got our smart object and let's go back it to the filter menu and choose filter gallery so you would use the filter gallery when maybe you don't know exactly the filters you want to apply it's great for experimentation sin alice turned the flippy triangle down of the artistic category and was at our paint jobs I love the way that looks on that photo and once adam knew effects layer and then let's change it to sponge and let's say that's, fine, so let's click ok, and now we're back in our documents. Now your next question, of course, is going to be, well, lisa, how do I get back to those original layers? Maybe I'd like to do a little color correction, or I want to alter those original layers in some way. What the heck do idea? Well, all you do is double click the layer thumbnail of the smart object, and I like to get into the habit of when I'm moving around layers or double clicking to expand smart objects get into the habit of double clicking the thumbnail itself, because depending upon where you click on a layer, you can't bring up different menus and different things can happen. So to keep me from having something unexpected happened and panicking, try to get into the habit of double clicking on the thumbnail itself. If you double click over here for a shot thinks you're gonna want to rename the layer so let's double quick, the family on itself and photo shop will give you a message that says, hey, I'm going to open these original layers in a whole nother document when you get finished changing those original layers, if you'd be so kind, just choose file save. Don't choose file save as because I don't want you to rename this temporary document. I don't want you to move the location of this temporary document, so just do a straight save that's really? All the style of box is telling you so as soon as you see it one time, just click the please don't show me this dialog box again. Checkbox, you're the nag checkbox I call it click ok? It is an egg sometimes it's good, but it gets annoying. So here we are in a temporary document. How do I know it's a temporary document will I can look up here in my tab area and I can see that. Oh, I've got another knuble tad that just opened up so here's here's, my file that were working with over here original file so funny shot popped open those original layers into your temporary document. It's got the extension dot psb, which stands for photo shot big and over here in our layers panel, we can see all those original layers if you make any changes in this temporary document and save it when we go back to the original document, those changes, we're going to update there as well, so let's, just turn the visibility I off on all these layers that I used teo correct this image and I want to warn you the images only pretty crappy when I turn these off so don't freak out so now it's just save the file, said she's file save or press command s on a mac or control s on a pc and then we're going to close the window because we don't need this temporary document anymore in depending upon how big your file is, you may get that little status farce and hey, I'm updating the other document so now we can disclose this document by either clicking the little x in its tab by choosing file clothes or my favorite way is to use this keyboard shortcut which is command of you on a mac for window or control w on a pc for window so here we are back in our document that we applied the filters to you and you can see the change it darkens because we turned off all those other layers so it's just you that one more time let's double click to expand the layer that we aren't there smart object layer that we made out of those multiple layers and see we didn't get that nagging checkbox or nagging dialog box rather this time so now let's turn on all those layers again on this clicking and dragging through the visibility eyes column and that will turn all of them offer turned all of them on that you pass over. So now we've got our bright image back so let's just press command s or control s to save it photoshopped gonna update our smart object back in the other document and now we're free to close this file command w on a mac or control w on a pc and we can see that here again our image looks a lot better now. Another thing you'll notice that happened over here in our layers panel is photoshopped out of this big old by from nail that's underneath the smart object that we ran the filter gallery on this is a layer mask and allows you to hide the effects of the filter wherever you paint with a color black so in the realm of the layer mask black conceals and white reveals so if we want to hide the effects of any filter on an area of the image, all we have to do is click to activate this automatic mask that we got now mine is active already how do I know it's active? Well, if I click back on the thumbnail of the smart object now I can see that the smart object is what's active or the image rather so you can tell by this little white bracket that you get around the corner so now when I click the mask itself, I know that the mask is active so did be cognisant of what is active in your layers panel and given time because the next thing you do is gonna happen to the currently active thing so now what we're going to do is zoom out and we're going to use any tool that we want to apply black and side of that mask and when we do that area that we paint on the filter is going to be hidden so I like to use the regular old brush tools so let's press b to grab the regular paintbrush and let's come up to the options bar and make sure we have a soft edge brush and you can change that by using this brush preset picker it's very near to the left end of the options bar so give the downward pointing triangle a single click and you just want to make sure that you have one of these soft brushes active so we want a soft edges were painting on the mask so that the area where we're hiding the filter blends nicely with the area of the image in which we're going to let the filter be revealed upon so it doesn't matter which one of these soft guys you pick you just want to make sure one of those is active we're going to change brush size with a keyboard shortcut so now we can come back to our document click the little down pointing trying on the brush preset picker again to close it and now, let's change brush size with our bracket key, so the bracket keys live on your keyboard next to the peak e p, as in paul mccartney, my favorite beatle, and we're going to press the right bracket key to go up and brush size, and you can see my brush cursor increasing in size as I do that, and then the left back at key will go down and brush size so that's, just a handy little keyboard shortcut for you when you're dealing with masks. The next thing we want to do is take a peek at the color chips at the bottom of our tools panel and make sure they're set up appropriately for painting in a layer mask. So here they are, done here at the very bottom of the tools panel. When I go into a mask, I just automatically reset my color chips to the default of black and white, and you can do that easily by pressing the d ki d for default. And when you do, these trips will go back to black and white, and then you can press the ex key to flip flop them so you can see they're in here at the bottom right of the screen as I press x those chips or flip flopping back and forth, so those were real handy keyboard shortcuts for you to memorize when you're working with masks so you'll do a lot of flip flopping back and forth because black conceals white reveals so for this technique for tow high the effects of the filter gallery lis press x so that black is again on top zoom back out and now wherever I paint with my brush will be hiding the effects of the filter so you can see how the original image is coming back so that's the way that you can let the filter not be revealed atop the whole layer another cool thing that you can do with the smart filter mask here and we're gonna be using these all day today, so but I just want to give you a good foundation about them so you're more comfortable with him is that you can change the opacity of the mask if he had like all you have to do is double click it and the mask itself and when you do the properties panel is going to open I see this density slider right here why the heck it's not called opacity is anyone's gifts that would make it make sense so as we drag the density slider to the left it's really reducing the capacity of the mask and you can see the mask preview right here says a full document preview of the mask see how the the mask was black where we made our paints troops now it's great! So that's all the slider is is this just a density slider so you can see as I reduce the density are mask gets lighter and lighter and lighter in color, so if black conceals completely and white reveals completely, then shades of gray do a little bit of both, so if you just want to tone down the effects of the filter but not hide it completely, then you can utilize this mask you know, in the areas that you want to tone it down on, and then you can use this density slider here in the properties panel to find teen exactly how much of the filter you want to be visible on that particular area of the image, but we'll go ahead and drag that back up two hundred percent and you can see that we're seeing are paint strokes here given layer mask are are black and again, how did I get into that? All I did was double click the smart filter mask itself, and the properties panel opens immediately and you're just going to use that density slider if you didn't use a soft edge brush. For whatever reason when you were painting in the smart filter mask and you want to soften the transition from the area in which the filters being hidden and it's being revealed, then you could grab the feather slider and that will feather the edges of the mask or soften them right up for you on the fly it's really a great non destructive way to do it because if you say this file as a photoshopped document, you can come back next week or a year from now and you could double click that smart filter mask in your density and feather settings they're going to pop right up here in the properties panel so it's a great non destructive way to work on your files. The next thing I want to show you about using smart filters or running a filter on a smart object rather is that the filter stacks up here if we picked another filter from the filter menu it would appear down here beneath are actually above this one because the most recent filter you run is going to be the one right under this smart filter mask right here so you can toggle the visibility often on of the filter itself by clicking this visibility I if you want to throw the filter away, click and drag its name down tio way down here down to the trash can icon at the bottom of your layers panels that's how you can get rid of any filter. Even if we had several stacked up here, we could describe the one that we want and throw it in the trash next thing I want to point out to you is this ally con to the right of the filter gallery or whatever filter that iran to the right of its name if you double click it it's going to open a blending options box that lets you control blending options for just the filter we're not talking layer blending options for the layer self we're talking the blending options for the effects of the filter so if there are any color changes introduced by the filter, then that is what these blending options would affect. So the coloration difference that you get from running the filter that and what's on the layer that you ran the filter on or other layers and your document these blending manage right here control how the color interacts from the effects of the filter with colors on that layer and layers underneath it. So that's what this many does right here so you can see the style of box is remained pretty helpfully blending options and then it will say whatever filter iran or filter gallery if you chose that in a a motive experimentation so we can change the blend mode here to something interesting actually before I do that I'm gonna go ahead and fill my smart object mask with white because I don't want to have any masking going on some misusing the edit feel command and from the eu's poppet mini I'm choosing white and when I do it's going to fill that mask with white, so now our filters being revealed on the whole image so let's pop back, open or filter blending options, and we're going to change the blend mode to something fun. We'll change it to darken so let's, grab that mode, poppet menu and slide down to darken and as you can see, that changes the way the image looks. So do be sure and pop up in your favorite frosty beverage or your favorite bottle of you know, an experiment with all of the filters and all the different ballin roads of the filters on the next friday or saturday night that you have available is a lot of fun I highly recommend it are our capacity setting right here is also incredibly useful, so even if you don't want tio change the blend mode, you might want to lower the strength of the filter itself. And if you don't want to do any masking in other words, if you want the filter to be applied to the whole image but you just want the filter as ah hole, you want to reduce the strength of it, then that's when this blending options box that's when you'd use the opacity sitting here, so if we just wanted everything we did in the filter gallery to be applied it about fifty percent to tone it down and make it look, you know, more natural or what have you then that this is where we do that so let's, bring it back up two hundred you might be tempted to change layer opacity, but if you do that what's going to happen to your document or your image, I'm changing opacity of everything, okay? Because I'm on the smart object layer. Ok, so if I use layer opacity that I'm dropping the opacity of that layer well, that's not what we want so let's push that back at two hundred percent. What we want is the capacity for the filters of fix and the way to get that is to come over here to that we're looking alike on to the right of whatever filter iran, double click it, and in the resulting dialog box that's where you want to change capacity so you can see that when we do that it's changing the capacity of only the filter, not the whole layer that's, pretty much all there is to smart filters or using changing her in one layer many layers into a smart object. Using the filter convert for smart filters command, we talked about the mask that we automatically get, we talked about how to turn the visibility often on of whatever it is that you've done there. And you can also talk of the visibility often on of the mask itself, so if you want to see a nice before and after after you've hit in the filter from certain parts of your image, so we talked about activating the man painting with black to conceal white to reveal and we talked about how to open the filters blending options do we have any more questions from the from the internet? On a few of those things that we went over? We've always got great questions coming in from our from our online global audience let's start off with with koli who was talking about you know, there's lots of ways to do just about anything and there's only six a day least write memos coley comes in from wisconsin when you're wanting to apply filters, is it best to go into the filter gallery first? Does that give you somehow more control than applying filters in another way? Not really, because all the film does a great question. All the filters that are accessible in the filter gallery will open it back up see these categories artistic breastroke distort sketch stylized texture. They're the exact same categories that we have down here in the filter menu that the difference is that when you open some of these categories down here they're going to open the filter gallery so if you know the filter that you want to run re populate your filter menu like we did with preferences and then choose it from down here because when you do let's, just go ahead and choose artistic paint jobs it's going to open the filter gallery great so you get all that experimentation? I think I had the mask active. Yeah, make sure the actual content is active thin he's filter artistic do as I say, not as I d paint jobs dario and let's just go ahead and close it. I'm doing this to show you the difference in the naming see now over here because we actually chose this filter from the filter menu we didn't get to it through the filter gallery it's named accurately in our layers panel so if you know the filter that you want to run, choose it directly in the in the filter menu that way you see its name in the layers hannah if you don't know exactly what you want to do and you're experimenting than phil frito, use the filter gallery and then if you want to figure out the next week or what have you what you did, then you're going to need to double click the filter gallery in your layers panel and it'll pop it open let's just do that yeah, yeah, yeah and here in the filter gallery is where you're going to see the filters that you ran but does that make sense? The difference between doing it in the filter menu and going through the filter gallery you don't get accurate layer naming in your layers panel but you can just double click the filter gallery in your layers panel to open the dialogue back up and then in the effects area of the field for gallery dialogue you can see exactly what you did so that was a long way to explain why did that with no that's what we have you here we love those explanations so mile high guy from colorado asks does lisa have a recommend recommended order for applying filters or groups of filters and are their filters that you found you better higher or lower in this stack? Not really that's a nice question and I'm sorry I don't have a direct answer for that but it's all about experimentation so yeah it just a pins because the order the order in which those effects layers air filter stack of the woman on the top is going to be the most visible so it just depends on what look you're going after so you'll have to experiment teo teo we order them so break out the wine yeah, I think we have a in studio yes, I just have a quick question can you still stack different effects if you access them not from the filter gallery but from like an individual you shows an individual absolutely not another one two yeah great question so here you can see in our layers panel that we started out with filter gallery and you all know because you watch we ran two filters while we were there and now we've got yet another round of paint jobs applied to that so we could keep adding filters all day long if we decided we wanted to sharpen this, we could try it to the filter menu that go down tio sharpened on chart mask what have you will just let it roll with default here so as you can see when as I continue to add filters to that particular smart object they just stack up here underneath the mask now if you wanted tio let's say mask the effects of some filters in a different way than other filters, then you can't run them all on the same smart ajit because you get one exactly one smart object a mask rather per smart object in this way. So if I wanted tio mask the paint jobs and filter gallery effects differently from uncharted mask, then I'd have to create another smart object out of the original smart object who is a party now so let's throw away the and sharp mask that we just ran and let's just do that so let's create another smart object you can nest smart objects quite deeply in photo shop I want to say one hundred and I'm not real sure where that number is coming from, so let's say we want it at a sharpening filter, but we need to mask it differently so we will click to activate the smart object that we've been working on. We can't use the filter convert for smart filters command because photo shop saying dude it's already a smart object not going to make smart object of smart object who would do that us so we have to do it over here in our layers panel so we're going to control or right click to near the layer name because you're going to get a different mini if you controller right, click on the layer thumbnail got any particular where you're clicking around and photoshopped its purse nicotine it will give you different results depending upon where you click so you want to click somewhere near the layer name just the right outside of that layer so controller right click and you can choose convert to smart object so we'll do that photo shops compressing that first smart object into a another smart object there's no quality loss on this by the way, I said compressing party should've say combining it's there's no compression algorithm going on so now we've got a fresh smart object so we can come up here to our filter mini choose sharpened look ok and now we've got a brand new fresh mask that we can use to hide the effects of the sharpening if we want again, how would we get back to all of that original layers that we were working with with double click this smart object it's going to expand into a temporary separate document? See here's where our filter gallery filters are in our pain dobbs what if we want to get back to the original layers? We double click again and now we're about ty original layers make our changes here choose file save it really would be active cheese files say but we haven't made any changes that's why it won't let us save but if we turn off some layers then we could see that the file save command does light up for us to use so we click save we close this temporary document depending on how big the file is, it may take a second or teeth now we may not have made any changes here, but we changed the contents of this smart objects, so we have to press we have to choose file save again okay, so we're just double clicking to expand the smart objects into different temporary documents and then we if we make a change over here than we have to save in close now we're back to the second one saving close however many smart objects you have nested so now let's, just use file, save. And then when we pop back, open, closed. This one in this document where we ran our and sharp man asked. Then we can see the coloration changes.

Class Description

In this deep dive, Lesa takes you deep into the wide world of filters to create a multitude of special yet practical effects. She'll take you well beyond blurring and sharpening, and you'll learn handy uses for nearly every single filter in the menu. You'll also learn how to use filters non-destructively, how to access filter blending options, and more!


Software Used: Adobe Photoshop CC 14.0

Reviews

Michelle B
 

I have purchased all of Lesas Deep dive classes and have learned so much. She makes it easy to understand and she gives you examples and goes through them more than once so you understand. This is the class that not only shows you how to but what you can do. She gives you ideas and she is a joy to watch and listen to. I can say enough good things about Lesas classes and I am so glad to have them in my tool box to refer back to anytime I am stumped on how to fix problem in Photoshop. Thank you Lesa!!