Lighting and Audio for HDSLR
Going back to the camera let's just run through the city's really fast so you're shooting thirty or sixty frames per second you're shooting the highest quality video that you need for what you're going to use it for uh so what about sittings here? What about aperture shut us shut a speed and esa so you know a triangle exposure triangle right there so here's the thing when we are shooting a photograph as you know, we want to get exactly the amount of light into the sensor to get the proper exposure so it's a combination of associate of speed and average temperatures how why does the opening shut up speed? How quickly, how long is it opened for? And also the s o is a sense of how sensitive is the sense and you ten one up you got to turn the other one's down to you you reach a balance so he is the thing about this shut a speed you don't have a will, the options that you haven't the target that you could if you want and what you want to do, those who want to do this in multiples upon your ...
shooting so essentially if you're shooting you take a one over double whatever your frame raiders so if I'm shooting at thirty frames per second, one over double thirty is sixty so I want to be shooting at one sixty for the second shutter speed. If I'm shooting at twenty four frames per second, the next obvious there's no forty eight, some shooting, one fiftieth if you were shooting at sixty friends with second one one twenty fifth so you go to the nearest derivative of that and the reason for that and I'm actually going to show you right here in photo seven it's actually getting the photo shop here, the reason we want to do that is because of motion blur if your shutter speed is too fast, you're going to get a stuttering effect and it's going to look really weird? Um for example, you know, we used to shooting a lot of the time, you know, it's retarded is we want to get every frame shark, so, you know, maybe we're shooting, you know, apple five six, one, twenty fifth, which is just going to use a lot, and so I'm doing it. And then at one twenty fifth, you're going to freeze the motion and every shot now with video, if you freeze every shot, you get this very, very rough, stuttering. So what you want to do is actually dragged the shutter a little bit, which is why you shouldn't want fiftieth on one. One sixtieth is a little slow on the movement get you get a little motion blur and each shot and so what happens when you put those shots together? It creates a smooth emotion and let me demonstrate this just in a really kind of a crude demonstration here just to kind of show you what what I mean here so what I'm going to do is I'm just going to open up this image him just using the crop told to enlarge the canvas and you know, obviously you can do that so I'm going to go here and I'm just going to make a little bowl so why don't we just, uh go here would use thie around it or rectangle tool rounded rectangle tunnel one of probably told you take him if you could please to wake up I mean, it would be a really weird looking for coffee stat so here we go we've got a bowl this looks more like a ball that's not it's, not flat, so I'm just gonna make a copy of this ball so I'm just going to come on a j and make a new layer of the ellipse and I'm just gonna move us down, hold down the shift key to constrain it and we're just gonna grab properties panel here and pop that into the top there just give us a little more real estate and that title layers that we go and what I'll do is I'm just going to drag these right up tops if you can see it better what just kind of funny because I'm used to you know, doing presentations usually in a large bowl room which is why I'm always moving stuff to the top because of this screen but I just realized problems watching it at home and they probably don't have like a whole bunch of clutter at the bottom of the monitor that you so you can see it wherever it is so anyway, having said that I've got these layers I'm just gonna rast arrives I'm really quick so I'm just going to rest arise layer which is just converting this shape into pixels I could have chosen the pixel option up here, but what I'm going to do is I'm going to click your video timeline and all I want to do is I'm just going to create a little animation I'm going to move these across the frame so I'm just gonna pop these open and don't worry if you don't know what I'm doing it because we will definitely get that some turning on the stopwatch for position and uh I'm just going to move these all I want to do is just get these guys moving across the page so I'm going to select them both and I'm just gonna drag while holding down the shifty and in release and we've just created another key frame so what happens is these are going to move so the whole point of this really is just to show you these living across you've done well I'm going explain all of this but see how you get the movement there and it's kind of studies a little bit one of the things we can do here is we can loop the playback so let's do that and I'm not going to decrease this a little bit and I'll decrease this in a reason doing this is just to speed up the information I'm just going to like both of these and pull it across that this will just make it happen a little quicker and don't worry this will all be described in very good detail a little bit so now if I hit the space bar to play this you'll see it's just going across there and you can see the motion so there are just moving moving, moving, moving okay, so now what happens if I stop here and let's take the top one and I can apply motion blur to it I'm just gonna choose blur motion blur and just give it a little blur chris let's the bottom one doesn't really matter which one we do just give a little mission player there we go so now if we played across which one looks like it's moving smoother the one on the bottom s o if I was to put these in the same position as each other or something that scared you don't move toe and I was going to grab this one and I was going to hit the shift key to constrain it can drag it on top of the other one and let me just move these I've actually probably isolation have done that because but moving on just changing their position so if I just hide one and just play it is it'll be a lot easier to see when you see one or two times you watching in that movement there and you can see it's kind of moving like that put in motion blur on it and you can see it already looks like it's moving when it's staying still and when you see it without them together you can see it's a much smooth emotion I mean obviously on on video this is going to be a lot more obvious so what it does it just create a smooth the landing between frames versus that staccato affected communicated by itself on its unglued is like so much like stop motion so you'll see they're on movies where they did it on purpose like three hundred you see that in that movement is all stick ricardo and that's because it is shooting at a higher frame right which what about the motion blur higher set of speed and then each frame and shopping and just creates that stuttering effect and you've probably seen it all on I've seen on tv stuff every now and then when they get a shot which wasn't quite right and you can kind of see knows that well, that looks weird it looked like a home video camera if you go that sometimes with the motion and I didn't quite get that that should speed right s o optimal so often will shutter speed you're thinking a sixtieth really for everyday use one sixty of a few shooting thirty frames per second okay if you're shooting twenty four frames a second one fiftieth ok perfect so you know as I say the formula is whatever it is just take a one and then just put a little dash and underneath double whatever your frame raiders underneath and it'll be, you know, shutter speed so one over dirty coupled is one of the sixty, so that was kind of just a golden rule that everybody uses now having said that you can't you can very outside of it if you want to it for a special effects. So having said that so you sit you showed a speed now so I shutter speed is locked down on me just just gonna change this lines and I'm just gonna put my steam lands on here for a reason you see in a second um so when you do that that means that when I need a proper exposure no I can't use my shutter speed to change the amount of light coming into my center into my cameras that means now I'm faced with only two options I s o and aperture then you would call it iris video people called the aperture and iris so what does that mean that means that well let's think about the aperture for a second with the aperture if I open it up I'm going to get a shell a different field it's going allow more light in but if I close it down stop it down it's going to allow less light in but at the same time I'm gonna lose that shallow differently and I'm gonna have a big a depth of field different field meaning how much isn't focused one time in the scene so you know in the whole point a lot of the time for people shooting with this camera is to get that shallow depth of field effect so that means if you wanna you know, play around your aperture and get a shell a difficult journey was certain amount to play with that means that you're going to be relying on your eyes so alone more than usual so you know what video? I guess I was a big thing with photography it's like, you know you do whatever I so you need to get the exposure and get your shot you know the kind of shot where you are you crank up the so so in video when you were in a low light situations you're going to be cranking up u s o a lot and using that I sort of get the proper exposure because you can't change instead of speed and you can't change your appetite too much so that's where you know in fortunately you know a lot of the camera's not on shooter very high I assert that a lot of noise so a lot of the time you can get what you need other times you gonna need lights you know this is entire courses on unlighted your creative lives there's tons of teaching on unlighted one of the things about lighting you can't use strobes so you know your speed like two useless because you are shooting continuous movement continues video so you're going to be using things like these here in the studio the kino flows which are my favorite video lights actually have you know flo's myself in my studio and and I like to use these I have a deep four hundred which is someone that one there but it has a double double bank so has four banks but each one has two strips that actually has a creates a very nice large light source and you can put a fuzzy a over there are diffuser and make a nice nice line is a consistent light they don't flicker, you'll notice is the flickering in here they're very expensive though is the downside of them andi also daylight balance fifty five hundred calvin which is great which means if your windows are open you've got natural light coming in you don't have to put color gels over the glass to or gels over your lights to compensate um you can get little ladies have seen a little of led panel's very popular right now you there's tons of them all over the place like panels is you know, the high end manufacturer but there's a lot of cheaper alternatives of those fluorescents you'll see those around they all worked really well I mean, you can use hot lights if you want you know, my first set of studio lights were smith, victor hot lights and fortunately I was able to retire those a few years ago, you know? Because they're not only being tungsten ballon, you know, being adding a color caress you have to compensate for that that man in california shooting because I know when I first auditioned and shooting in my garage and shitting in there and trying to keep the makeup on your model I mean you're skipping it off the floor all the time just so hot then sitting puffing up in here and I'm like you really don't want to do that by that light is thing is you exploit special that product and there is like something out to get away from those two cool lights is which I shoot a ll cold cold right now you know which is all fluorescent and uh and led all day my balance stuff it's cool you can touch it you know in your hands it's wonderful and the other thing too is power consumption very very low power consumption on these lights you know, you played in a couple of those old hot lights and you know in the garage has blown fuses left right and center thing have destroyed the power in my garage just the shooting you get four, four, five lines playing in the sixth level everything goes out it's like not fun so anyway and in the lighting principles are very much the same that you would do for oh just to skim through the super super super fast the principal you know, the lighting is the same principles that you would use for shooting portrait ce for shooting still photography as faras positioning I'm just going to open up use my little thing out of my book here and you know, I go into this in this first chapter which all the students will get for free who read by the class you'll get this there's chapter here not just been a couple of quick little lighting diagrams I've got in here when I show you so here we go, here's some just basic lighting set up. So did the rendering here inside a cinema forty. Um, I'm not trying to just has a little thing. I open an acrobat here. I'm not even sure how to zoom in here. I will be honest. I think this is it. I'm not even acrobat expert. I use acrobat here for reading files and for writing them. And I don't do much else in there. So here we go. Basic three lights set up here's your camera. You got a main line which is illuminating his subject. You've got your fill light, which is balancing out the shadows are filling in the shadows on the other side. You want to have this one a little less than the other one, because if you don't, then you're gonna get very flat like, which, you know, a lot of video. The archives use flat light a lot, but I prefer to have more dramatic line, so delighting one side and in filling in the other side. So you've got exposure because yesterday we did. X t r and you can get around not having a film life of hdr, but you can't with video and in a back light. So here I just got this against white seamus the backlight just creates several things one is that you know, you can use it as a hair light you can create a nice room around there that the main thing is what it does is it separates from the background and the other effective using a good back like tio sometimes what do you use a light there and all through that onto the seemingly so whatever I'm doing there now reduced the shadows behind so you just you know, like your screen behind you if you want to do that so that's just a basic three lights set up um, because I said I'm not getting into that super big here's a two light set up and all I'm doing is replacing one of the lights with a reflector and a lot of the time when you go outdoors and you're shooting interviews outdoors you could be using the main light could be the son and we're just using reflected to fill in the sides and sometimes you can bring a little portable light with you on location and used as a back light or fill light or whatever. So andi, even if you don't have any, just use the sun in a reflector was case scenario of course you want to be careful, you know, shooting directly into the hot sun sometimes you want to go into a little bit of open shades that you don't get that you know the hearts areas with the shadows kind of mixing so you want to be in an area which is nicely balanced so don'ts behalf in the shade in half in the sun when you're shooting out those basically so you can get more like that taking the y times if there's too much light so you're shooting outside sunny day there's too much light you shut your eyes so all the way down to one hundred shooting all the way down to fifty if if your camera supports it you've got here you're apertures closed as much as you want but you don't want to close it all the way down to you know if sixty four because you're gonna have enlisted field you're losing the whole point of shooting there so maybe you've got it down to saying if for and you've still got way too much light coming in what do you do? Well that's why you see these met boxes on the front of cameras it's not they're not putting a match box on the front because it's saying, hey look at me I'm shooting video no get out of my way I mean some people probably didn't want it like a real video refracted a big mac box you know and you saw the map box there actually when I was holding shane's chains camera on here and is the matchbox there and I can tell you right now shane her but does not need to put a mailbox in the front of his camera to prove different shooting video because I mean he has access to all of this equipment in the world and you know, the point of that is to attach mutual density filters and with the maps mexicans popped him in and out really, really quickly and unusual density salty cuts the amount of light coming in now I've got circular mutual density filters here and you'll see the little number on this one here is that's ah one eight and this one here is a nine and nine gives you essentially three stops of reduction this one he'll give you six stops of light production so by putting these mutual density filters on you can get them in different densities just screw them on the front have you camera that cuts the amount of light which enables you to keep the aperture open and get your desired exposure here so you play around a tweak it a little bit with the assault but that's not enough put a heavier one on if that's not enough stack them but a couple on and you can kind of see it that way there's another schneider optics make are very, very good variable mutual density filter which is basically essentially two of these is a polarizer it's essentially two polarizes at different angles and in you turn them and what it does is it as you turn it, it gets more dance or less dense so so those kind of things are available as well so if you're gonna be shooting in the signing your too much light this is a solution here so actually adding any external exposure control so um what are we doing here? I think we're just about there for the shooting stuff to see if I've forgotten anything about shooting on one other thing when you're shooting audio audio on this camera sucks just put it plainly where is my confront is always a little tiny hole here that is my microphone I mean right now we're in you know, a nice scent highs unlike which is I use these actually these mikes that we use is while we use this anheuser's and um you can if you want the several ways of doing it you want to use the extent might just period you could get a mike this is on top of shotgun mic is really good for getting action. You can plug it in here you'll see on the side there, you know, you just get a little quarter inch jack now the problem with that is going directly into the camera is with the camera you using the internal processing, which sentences very noisy inside the kennedy on and probably you know most of the sellers the use of coming something called order gain control which is still available turn it off tenenoff immediately because what that does is it searches for a sound and as soon as it catches the first bit of senate automatically sits a level so if I was a turn around right now and I'm not speaking it would take the ambient sound as the sound level so basically what would happen is it with you amplify the background was and you probably you know I heard it different spirited good order gain control you hear this so are all the cars and assume someone starts speaking eclipse he had a snap sound and then it drops down and trying to get uh the audio level so don't use that because that's exactly what you'll get use the manual gain control and you've got meters on the back of your camera that you can set those meters and get a nice level and then use that alternatively what most people do is they use was not his dual audio and so this is a zoom is what he uses uma's very popular this tons of different manufacturers to make these portable recorders uh you know panasonic I mean, you know every everyone makes him so just check him out zuma's just seems to be the one that everyone started using and and it's good it's very good said this will record audio record very good quality stereo audio and the important thing is here is a good xlr jax so with the xl objects I can actually plug in professional quality microphones in here and decent decent mike you're the quarter inch you're really limited to what you can do with this you can use balanced, you can use phantom power or that kind of stuff and get better quality audio. The other thing that I do sometimes if I'm not doing that and I want to do the audio and here there's another thing called juice link, which the people in chat rooms going to hate me because I didn't tell them about that so they don't have the probably frantically searching for right now just link and they have a little pre evidence sits on the bottom of the camera here and it can actually fit on the mountain for the tripod you could put it between what is this a little pre empt and what that enables you to do is a pre empezar of pre amplifier and enables you to boost the signal so then by boosting the signal here you could turn down the gain in the camera which reduces the noise because otherwise is a very noisy audio and this thing's signal to noise ratio you want more signal, less noise and s o u goose that very high using a pre empt you get a stronger signal and then you can turn it down here you get more signal less noise so having said that we know a lot of the you know the pros when I put these together this is a plug in that is cooled plural eyes that's plural eyes yes and and has used for sinking the audio we can sink the audio and photo shop it's not easy it's a little trout area just have to move it around until it's working right so one of the things we always do it is you see that little clapboard now that's not there to say hey look at me I'm shooting a movie you know it's a lot of things that you know they have a purpose and the clapboard basically you know, you write down whatever your frame your scene and then you had that snap when you shut that snap what that does is all the audio devices this he will pick up that snapple that clap this here will pick it up and if I'm shooting other cameras as well multiple cameras which would do it all the time there is going to get that sound and then you can sync with that collapse he was into they clap lie animal upon a clapping deacon to multi camera editing now poor man's clapper board is this and I use it all the time stop and you just clap your hand and you just hear that and then that will come through in the cameras you know stuff will be working today you probably hear someone say cameras saying and then it's clap their hands and that's where we sink the cameras and then we can replace the audio from that point so that's the audio was there any questions or anything so far? Uh chile cayenne from new orleans asks I've heard the cannon five d mark three for video it was best to use an esso and multiples of one sixty have you heard that and potentially could comment on that actually no, I haven't been it sounds like an interesting theories was looking into yeah ok and then peter jackson from england problem reputed not peter jackson is still a little bit confused about formats how do you h dot two, six, four and seven twenty and ten eighty relate ok that's that's a good question. The h two six four is a is a format the think of that is in photo shop. Okay, you're working with a file format could be a j pig could be a ping could be appears dea tive so I think of that as you know there's an oversimplification but it's a good way to think about it. So the foul former h dot two six for abc hd quick time just think of that even though some of them are flavors of other ones and some of the rappers but we don't need to get into that just think of those as the file formats now the ten eighty piece in twenty ptsd all that is is talking about the size the frame size, the actual dimensions off the of the of the campus or what would capture and so think of that is just a canvas size and photoshopped that were working or even you looking back four by six you know you're working at my ship for basics is probably more aspect ratio but you know four inches by six inches or I'm working at you know, a thousand pixels across by twelve pixels one hundred twenty pixels down or whatever, you know, six hundred by eight hundred so all that is this is the actual physical dimensions that we're doing in pixels. So this is it when you see the ten eighty that's what thousand eighty pixels down by nineteen hundred twenty pixels across it doesn't matter what format you're doing it and it's going to shoot it there you know it's a complicated matters mohr which I'm not going to get because I don't want to confuse people but you know you can the first chapter of my book because cover there but also you know you can wicket too is you know this is it gets a little more complicated with the pixels and video not necessarily square pixels so you know the chute square pixels but there's also you know that pixel aspect ratio is not necessarily square they could be rectangular shaped and then you know and then his other you know animal thick where you know you shoot it and it comprises about them when you decode it takes in it stretches back out so it goes from very skinny pixels it changes the shape of the pixels and well that's what you get the wide screen so you know, the other derivatives of that but I don't really want to get people hung up on it because we couldn't really go down there and go and for that you know what we're doing here we really you don't really even need to know that you're shooting on here is shooting square pixels you're editing and square pixels you know said with the iphone end of story I mean you start using p two or you start using you know every ch I know nbc actually about it you know that actually will some of that will come in on square pixels and you know and then it's different um picks last week russia but I don't want to get into that because a zay said you know in the first chapter the book all week it if you really need to know it ok perfect and I'm going to throw a question from me all right I think there's a piece of equipment we haven't talked about yet and this was something when I started doing video I kind of learned the hard way flash card tell us about that tokyo answer to what speed you use and what you would recommend okay that's interesting question um flash card here is this's what am I using here? I'm using a sandis extreme sixteen mics per second sixteen bigger by send us you just want to give you know, shooting video did the fastest card that you can find don't skimp on that you know you'll see you'll see there's like I think triple speed and it just goes on it's like you know just keeps going keeps going keeps going eso just essentially get the fastest car you can get when I started shooting I had like my old forget card which was great speed for photographs then start shooting video is like no you know the other thing doesn't like it in certain cameras have minimums you know, same thing here on the gopro here I'm using the the's something interesting takers and you go pro three has got like extremely small in life it's a tiny little thing and now it's using the micro sd card wow so if you can see this here this little current here is thirty two gigabytes school think about this my first hard drive on my computer was one hundred megabytes so yeah I think gigs on this thing so you know get maximum capacity because you know don't worry about the one and I've got one big cards and you know they're good for shooting photographs by me for video you have just been through it so fast it's not even worth it yeah so you know get it gets bigger card it's going for within reason if you know you can get a to get card for you know hypothetically speaking no exact prices but this just assumes one hundred dollars for a thirty two good card and it was four hundred dollars for sixty before you could get to think you're crazy in a way for the technology to try to catch up because the prices are always coming down but yeah speed is a ce fastest especially get don't go toe you know well martin did the cheapest card that you can possibly find it you know because when you go cheap you're your own including yourself yeah awesome thank you so much what we got to go pro out cayenne wanted to know could you remind us if that was shooting in seven twenty or ten adp um but the gopro yes sir or you can shoot and either you can sit here okay? Yeah or you can shoot high this will shoot all the way up to four k fantastic okay um and then are we gonna be getting into a little bit of work flow later on jumbo photo wanted to know about whether you bring your work in tow light room for video first from the camera or just directly into photo shop we're actually going to be looking at a little bit of both of that but what I do is I bring my video into light room pardon me? I can even show you really quick um I love my room is a media manager although it let me let me re emphasize that for this kind of stuff and I'm doing little short things and I'm shooting and I'm missing around fit on dh doing kind of, you know, find little projects stuff like that I'm amusing like room you know when we're doing you know, photoshopped cafe we know we do the you know, pretty big projects where you know, we're talking hundreds of of gigs you know, and filling up terrified drives I don't do that through a room that kind of footage you know, we use a completely different media management and go through adobe pre lewd and adobe pre lou this kind of like a light room for video without editing it just helps you tow manager media but having said that for that, you know a lot of the dslr stuff for the majority of people you can use light room you can also use bridge, but like room works better. And one of the nice things about light room here's. If I click and I go old photographs, you know, this is just what I bought him for this class. Here, I can go up under attributes here, and I can click on video and what they will do, so filter it down and showed just the video clips. So this is all the video clips installed right now in this building of library. So it's, very easy to find them, and we can do cem. Some basic video editing.