and this is a standard order of sentences in other Indo European languages where we've taken on a partner, Asterix A. Because and I'll explain this in a minute where you have a sentence that makes sense in every other language. Um, listed here on day we can see that essentially and we can look at our work. But while we're doing this because this is the first exercise in the foot in the workbook where we see that we have essentially the same word order here we have a person doing something. What's the person doing? This person is eating a banana. Now here we have in Spanish Espo Commune, though which corresponds to the progressive are the continuous tense in English because we have in English. I am sorry. I eat versus I am eating now. Essentially, the idea behind them is the same. In this case, we're saying I'm eating a banana because it's something that we're doing now and the other languages This doesn't exist. It's in place, a concept that we don't have in German, for example, And in...
French you have in French, you could get away with it in German. You'd have to use. Maybe an adverb. I'm eating. I'm eating a banana right now. But verbally speaking, we don't have another another way of expressing this in German. But through the verb in Spanish, you Do you have common Blatter? No. Or a Stoke Communion Platinum album is more so right now and in French is the same. You could say just really stand momentary, like I'm literally in the course off eating I mean the course off to eat a banana. Now, in these three languages, you couldn't change the order. You couldn't say on Blatter. No esto commune in banana. Joe Nagy, you could say Lebanon. Angela moans like I eat the banana. French sometimes does that, but essentially, if we look at if you want to simplify things and we mean keep things simple and easy, you know, we need to know is that in this case, in sentences of this structure, we simply have a, um more or less the same structure as in English in German because of the case. And we'll see this and the others. And I like, uh, I'd like for you to complete this in your own free time, but we will go through this one, as I said, and I'll explain what to do. I'd like us to do the first exercise together, which is exercise a. Now we see this sentence, this structure and I would like you to. Now, after seeing this to read the exercise A on to train for new sentences with the following words that appear in the Bocklet in the workbook and to translate them to English. So, for example, we have, in the case of Spanish, we have another. Another object. We have another fruit, which is, you know, owner Narron. And in French, we've changed the verb and it's instead of Germans, its reservoir on then Lou Garcia, which is the boy? I mean some languages. Gaffe song is actually the waiter. And in German, you have we changed Esser to Schreiber and then banana becomes character. Would anyone like to suggest making a new sentence in Spanish? Philistine, as you were with yo yo, Your grandchild's your grandson, right? Yeah. So what would you say in there if you got rid of if he didn't add on? Huh? What would you say for the Come on on? I'm not done exactly so well done. The J in Spanish is usually pronounces like this. We saw this year previously. This like her. So this case study called me in, though, Or Cuomo? I'm sorry. Sorry. You're right. I've put a store communes, and it's Kabul, which is the difference between I eat and I'm eating. So you could say a start. Communal or Cuomo? Blanca. Morgan, Thank you. And we'll quickly go. Would you prefer to the French? One of the German one? Jimmy, you can choose between the French older drivers. French. Yeah. The verb is of Wah wah and Gasol Carson. So if you put it in a sentence together, you can keep the bananas. Well, if you want, you can say I see a banana. Well, I see the banana. I see a banana. If we say I see a banana, how would you say that Jeff wore banana? Well done. Exactly as you have work in Benin. And if we say I see the boy, it would be Christine. Very good. Very, very good are spared. You have been because of the But this is something That's all we have different. I've compiled a different different kinds of structure and I'd like us toe. I'd like you to look at that in your spare time and to have a goal of completing the exercises concerning that. Now we'll carry on with grammar in verbs. And in this case we're looking at we already referred to the doing verbs. Now there's a certain kind of structure concerning these. Andi, we're talking here about developing patterns, establishing patterns. Now, we said already we saw reading. Mr. We know how this is, Doug, because we just add an ass onto the he she it. I'm going to be looking at this in Germanic romance and Semitic languages as an example. So Germanic languages a really about keeping it simple concerning this. The main example. Our main exception here would be German. German likes to complicate a lot of things s odors, Icelandic, but German and I slept naked. Definitely fairways as well. But Farrelly's I would definitely recommend learning Farrelly's, but it's probably not on your list just yet. It's only spoken by 50,000 people, but and doesn't sound the way it's written. But that shouldn't deter you for wanting to learn it. I think it's a great language on duh, but well, maybe speak about that later. But if we look at the verb structure, Onda tenses in the Germanic languages, then they're really, really quite straightforward. We have I do. I did, apart from irregularities, but it's I speak, will speak and spoke is maybe the best one. But where you learned, learned, learn And in Scandinavian language, for example, you don't even have Scandinavian Eso Swedish Norwegian. You just have one form for four of the verb. So it's basically saying, I am, um Khiyam, she, um, William. And it's the same with awfully currents as well. And we saw, yes, they might before my Penis in my hand and the verb is issue is, and it's exactly the same. For all the tenses, there's just simply one form. So when we learn the language we live in, one of these languages are we need to do is learn to simply one farm on. We have it already on the case of Scandinavian languages. Well, you don't have any cases. You don't have. They in Germany, you have, like, the differentiation between I see the man where it becomes Damman and Esteem from diameter Demon on the great thing about Germanic languages as well is, isn't it something that will see we touched on briefly already. But in this case, we have something really nice, which is starting with a simple concept in this case expression, which is to speak. And from this we can derive so many concept we can derive Bush oppression. So yeah, I'd be in front of it, and that's to discuss. And then you have inch oppression, which, funnily enough, has nothing to do with length with with speaking, it's to do with to correspond to obscuration. Fair inspiration is a nice one as well. Fash Prevention is either to say something wrong or to promise something now that maybe I may have to do with me. We've had to do with the mentality that some people in when German was came about, that they didn't distinguish between May 18 saying something wrong and promising something. But funny enough, you can use them in in similar ways, So if we look it, then we're actually in this case. We're keeping things really, really simple. If you look at romance verb so verbs from romance languages Italian, Catalan, Portuguese, French, then they traditionally have one of three or four endings. So anyone that's leaning Spanish at the moment will know that you've got three categories of a R, E R and IR. Verbs on one would be applied to speak Comet, which you've just seen already on BVD. Now all verbs in these languages simply end with these endings. A. E I, uh, there's so many other languages to become R E. But in the case of Spanish is only three. Somehow, for some of the language is now on. We also have something that's very similar in some romance languages to what we have in English. And it's this the the continuous. So the difference between I speak and I'm speaking now we have this in Spanish as well. We have it in Portuguese as well, so we don't have to necessarily think of something on the last thing I was going to talk to. Use the subjunctive, which is something that we'll talk about later because it's great also for an exercise of cover. Their exercise in the last thing I would like to talk to you is about grammar concerning verbs is the system in the Semitic languages, which is Arabic, Hebrew and Hajric. Now these are actually really great because very similar to the German idea of expression. And then Bush parecia an inch Crecion. Fresh protection, up suppression. We have a really great system off. Every word consists of three sounds. Let's say three continents. So the word to right So we have put LPL hit n and PAL is a form of the verb. So, for example, we've got in Spanish a r e I R. In Hebrew that we have buildings. So, pal, for example, a pal verb in the past would be Khatab. And if I write it in Hebrew is this so you've got three letters and if we look here, we see per ill This is basically this stands for that They stand for that and this stands for that letter for this constantly. So we always working with continents. So if we seek a toff, it's a power because it's a a. Now we can make a new word Qatar Qatar means, he wrote. But if you wanted to say he call responded, then we can change this a greater new verb by following the new pattern which is hit pale. So all we have to do is we keep hit and then we write Koptev because we always keep these letters. Thes are the building blocks of the verb of the word. Every word is either composed of Verba three or four letters. Now all we have to do is like a bit like maths or you have to do is keep the vowels together. And you just simply have to change them, too. I'm sorry. Put me to get the vaccine. The president made categories. President had categories in the past. But are we doing essentially is swapping vowels for other vowels and fitting them around the system? If we change it to P l, it would be key to save, and in Hebrew and Arabic as well. I really great at doing this because all they do is you have continents and you simply create new verbs by doing so. For example, the verb to telephone in Hebrew is we get rid of the vowels when we create a pl lab, which is what we have here. And it's till fend. Who till friend is he called. He telephoned because we have p e l. So this is in this case it's a double one because he wanted to keep the make you sound like telephone. And to send an SMS is see mess. So as m ass and you just other vowels in between it, this might sound a bit overwhelming. And if anyone would like to carry on talking about Hebrew, then I would be. I hope it's important to re discuss this with you and more in further detail because it's genuinely a fascinating thing. But it's simply just first to see that there are so many easy, Andi understandable approaches that we have when we concern and we want to tackle grammar. So before we learn grammar and we go about understanding the language, we need to know how the language works in order to master on by doing by analyzing the language like we've done already. Then we can find out how the language actually works the building blocks of the language, whether we're dealing with tenses, whether we're dealing with cases and things that could really, really help us here on a vital first of all your grammar book are your grammar up and secondly, and I would say maybe also Justus important, if not more important lovely box called descriptive grammars, and they usually about 1000 pages long. And they have every single imaginable scenario in the language possible, usually with really weird sentences that don't necessarily make sense in our language. But it's to show how the language can be used in every single situation and is described towards why. And if you're thinking about buying someone a loved one, a president, think about or yourself reward yourself. It's a great reward, you know, after your achievement.