Isolated Adjustments in Lightroom®
Alright we're back and, let's think about what we've done over the last few days. And then where we're headed. So if you remember on our first day, we talked about getting a firm foundation with Lightroom, which was more about the big picture, more about how do you think about it as a whole, how is it different than other programs, so you really understand how it works. After we did that, we got into, the second week after our firm foundation of things, organizing and such. Can we hold on one second?
'Cause something's weird here in my. Yeah, sorry, this wasn't started at the beginning.
Taken a sec. 'Cause this skipped over something, how did I get to, week one? So I'm on 20, okay. Cool.
Just gotta hit play, and, one other thing, take me just another second. One. Okay, now I'm ready.
We're back with another session, another day, let's start by thinking about where we've come, thus far, because now we're in the second week, and on the ...
first week we talked about getting a firm foundation with Lightroom, and that's where we talked about your overall mindset when you're thinking about the program, your overall workflow, and we worked on things like, how should we have a single catalog or multiple? How do you work with collections? How do you develop a system of simply naming your folders, that can completely transform the way you think about past projects where you can tell exactly the status within any image simply based on where it's stored? We talked about some basic adjustments, exporting your images, imprinting. So that gave us a pretty good foundation. Then on the second week, first day, we talked about organizing your images and working with projects. 'Cause just moving things around between folders, you only can do so much., so we got into collections, smart collections, stacks, ratings, flags, filters, a whole bunch of things that allow us to organize our images and kinda cull down a shoot where if you have 1000's of images you shot, you can quickly figure out what are the best out of that set. Then on the second day we talked about tagging our images with keywords, where we suddenly can make them searchable. And the idea there is that I wanna be able to find any important image in about five seconds or less. And the only way I can do that is by very smartly tagging my images with appropriate information so we can find them later. So that's seven days so far outta 20, and that means we have 13 days to go, and we have a heck of a lot more to learn. So today, let's think about what we're gonna get into. We're gonna talk about things that don't effect your entire image. Because up until now we've worked with the basic adjustment tools, in there, pretty much everything we did will effect the majority of the image. And if the problem you have is just on the left side of somebody's forehead or something like that, none of those basic adjustment sliders will be able to target that one isolated area that might have a problem. So today that's what we'll get into. And so that means today we're gonna talk about some retouching that we could do, we'll talk about using the adjustment brush, using what's called the graduated and radial filters, and cropping. And so let's just jump into Lightroom, and spend the majority of our day there. So the first thing to talk about would be cropping. I find that the vast majority of my images can be improved through cropping, and there's a couple little tricks when working with cropping features in Lightroom. So I'll just start with an image that needs to be cropped and straightened. I'll press the letter D to go to the develop module, and at the top, above the basic adjustment sliders, you're gonna find a series of tools. One of the ones is on the far left, which is the crop tool, and you can actually just press the letter R on your keyboard, all by itself, and that should take you directly into the crop tool, if you're gonna be cropping a lot of photos all the time, so that way you don't have to manually click on it. When you go to the crop tool, on the right side of my screen I'll find the options for the crop tool and on the image itself, I'll find a cropping rectangle extended all the way to the edges of the image. I can grab the sides and pull it in, or I can grab the corner if I wanna adjust to sides at once, and if I'd like to rotate things, I can move my mouse outside of that cropping rectangle so I'm just beyond the cropping rectangle, and I can click and drag to rotate. Or if I wanna reposition the cropping rectangle, I can move my mouse within it and drag it around the image. It's more like dragging the image underneath the cropping rectangle. And that's the basics when you're cropping your image. But then there's a bunch of other things we can do with it. If you look over on the right side of your screen. This image needs to be straightened. And you'll find that we can adjust this setting called angle, it's just a slider you can grab and drag, and if you do, all it's gonna do is rotate, the cropping rectangle, and that's no different then me moving my mouse outside of the cropping rectangle and dragging. But then to the left of that slider, there is this little guy. That's supposed to look like a bubble level. You know, the kind you would use if you were hanging a picture on the wall and you put something on top to see if it's level or not. Well if you click on that, then you can move your mouse on top of the image and if there's anything in there that should be perfectly horizontal, or perfectly vertical, we can click on it and then drag across so that this line that's created is parallel with the area that should be horizontal or vertical. When we let go, it will calculate the proper angle to make that nice and straight. And with a lot of images, Photoshop can actually calculate that on it's own. Because if it has a relatively obvious horizon line, or it has very close to vertical lines, like in a building or things, it can probably figure it out for you. And to show you that, I'm gonna go to the lower right, and first click the reset button, just to kinda get me out of this cropping, so you can see the image uncropped, and notice two ways to get to auto. You see that first there's the word auto right here, really close to that slider called angle, and you could click that, and it will try to straighten your image. Or the secondary way you can do it, if I choose undo, is to just move your mouse on top of the word angle, and I don't know if you remember or not, but when we were adjusting our pictures, I mentioned there was a way to get an auto setting to apply to any individual slider of those adjustments, and what we ended up doing is we held the shift key, then we double clicked on the name of slider. Well here we have a slider that has an auto setting related to it and if I hold down shift, and just double click on the word angle, it will also automatically do it. So many different ways, you just pick your preference. And once it has straightened things, then you can fine tune your cropping rectangle, to decide exactly what you'd like to include in the frame. Let's switch to a different image, I just pressed the letter G to go back to the grid, and I'm just gonna show you first off a bunch of images that have already been cropped. We'll switch between them and you can just see how much the cropping improves the image. I find that so many people only crop images that obviously need them, and I find that the majority of images that I shoot can be improved through cropping. So let's go through here, I'll just choose an image, but I'll grab the crop tool and then we'll switch between a bunch of images and you can just see how each crop has cleaned up, each successive image. Usually to isolate a particular area to get rid of clutter around the edges. Because not always does the subject matter that I'm shooting does it nicely fit within the shape of my view finder. Sometimes I need to modify it, and you can see on each one of these how I've isolated and cleaned up the image through cropping. Like that's a huge crop difference. If I get outta the crop tool, there's the end result, but there's the original shot. Sometimes you just don't have a long enough lens to get what you need, and so cropping is very necessary. Now I'm doing something special, because usually when you're in the crop tool, if you use the arrow keys, instead of switching between images, it thinks you wanna nudge the position of the cropping rectangle. Like, nudge your picture underneath it, so if I just use the arrow keys by themselves, you'll see it moves the picture underneath the cropping rectangle. But somehow I was able to get it to actually switch between pictures when I was using those arrow keys. And so there's a little trick, and it works in a couple different areas of Photoshop, mainly when you're using the various tools that are found above your adjustment sliders. And that is if you wanna switch between images, hold down the command key on a Macintosh, that's control on Windows, and then use the arrow keys. And when you do that, it just let's Lightroom know, that I wasn't trying to do something related to the tool I was using, I really did wanna switch between images. And that's by holding down the command key, control in Windows, and then use your arrow keys. That also works with some other features. If you're doing things like adding keywords, let's say, to an image, usually if you use the arrow keys, it thinks you wanna move between the letters that you've typed in of the keyword you've recently entered. Well if you're done with that, and you just wanna switch to the image and start typing again to put in another keyword, same thing, hold down the command key, use the arrow keys, and you can do that. Whereas usually those arrow keys would be thinking about the specific feature you're using. So then let's look at the other features that are found within our crop tool. When I'm in the crop tool, I've already mentioned the rotation, so let's see what's leftover in here. We have aspect, and if I end up using aspect, what I can do is on the right side, click and choose presets. So that if I know I want a perfect square for it, I could come in here and choose one to one ratio, or if I want eight and a half by 11 ratio or anything like that, in here I can choose it. Or if I don't find what I need in here, 'cause I need a custom size, for instance, I'm gonna create a banner for the top of a Facebook page or something, and those banners have a specific aspect ratio, width to height ratio, if I can figure out what it is, I can choose enter custom, and when I do, in here I can put in my custom ratio. Once I've chosen a ratio here, this little lock symbol turns on, and that means I'm locked into that ratio. So now whatever I do, doesn't matter if I grab the sides of the rectangle or the corner, I'm gonna be using that ratio. If I later on decide I don't want to use it anymore, I can click on the lock symbol to say no longer keep me locked into that ratio. But that's gonna decide if it's stuck on that ratio or not. So as long as it's stuck on it, then I can crop this, keeping those particular ratios, and undo it as well. There is a choice down here called constrain to image. And you'll find that you can't in general bring your cropping rectangle outside the image itself, because then there'd be empty space within that, even when you have constrained image turned off you can't. The time that you might find that to actually be of use, is when you've applied either lens corrections to your image. A lens correction would be one that if if had barrel distortion or pin cushion distortion where it actually bends things, or if you had let's say a fisheye image, that you had Lightroom straighten, I'll see if I can find one in here, I thought I saw one earlier, this one. Whoops, I just passed it. The other one had it as well. But it made it so in this case, I corrected for tilting my camera up a little bit, and there are some features in Lightroom we'll talk about in a different session where you can fix that. But in doing so you're gonna end up with some areas that do not contain the picture itself. It's just empty space. And if constrained image is turned off, I can go out here and include that kinda white space within my crop, whereas if I turn on constrained image, it will pull in the edges of my cropping rectangle to make sure they only contain the image itself, and none of that extra space. It can also be used when you stich a panorama, and it's a non-rectangular end result, and you might wanna include a little bit of that. The time that I might wanna include a little bit of that is when I might decide that it's not convenient to crop in this tight, I might need to move it up and include a little bit of that area, and then I might end up trying to fill in that area, using either Photoshop, 'cause it has a lot of features for doing that type of thing or using possibly the retouching tools here within Lightroom to try to come up with a way of filling that in. In this case it wouldn't be the easiest thing to do, but in Photoshop it would. So you're gonna find most of the time though, constrained image isn't gonna really do anything for you unless you have a panorama or something with lens corrections. Now the one thing that you might get frustrated about when using the crop tool is when you're thinking about cropping, sometimes you're thinking about an exact size. Like three by four inches. And everything that is in Lightroom's crop tool, is a ratio instead. It would be a three by four ratio, regardless if that's inches or if it's five inches tall, or any particular size. So you need a combination of two things to get an exact size. First you need to crop an image to the proper ratio. The width to height ratio, like eight and a half by 11 ratio, and then when you export your images you need to, in your export settings, it will have settings for scaling. And there is where you would actually tell it, this should actually be eight and a half inches wide, instead of three inches or something else. So it's kinda two spots to go to, and it's a little different then you would have if you're used to being in Photoshop, because you don't actually define the size of your end result until you actually export your image. And so it's a combination of the crop and the export settings. So it's just something to be aware of. Alright then, let's get beyond the crop tool, unless you have questions about it. And we're gonna start talking about other things that only effect smaller areas of your image, that work on isolated things. So first is there any questions about crop tool? Okay, then let's go on, and talk about spot removal. So this is Lightroom's version of retouching. And what Lightroom does, is very limited. So we're gonna have to work within the limitations of it. There's a reason Lightroom is so limited, and that's because everything you do in Lightroom, needs to be able to be recorded as text in your Lightroom catalog file. If you remember near the first few days, we talked about what is in a Lightroom catalog. When you important your images, you get a preview image, it remembers the name and location of your image, and it remembers what you've done to it within Lightroom, but when it does that it just writes it down as text. And there's only so much we can do, when we're just writing it down as text. The advantage to doing it that way, is nothing is permanent, and when you make changes to your images in Lightroom, you don't get a huge increase in file size. If you did it in Photoshop, the moment you add a layer and start doing things, you can easily get your file sizes to double or triple in size, in Lightroom that's not gonna happen. You're gonna get an extra 38K or 40K, you know, tiny amounts, the size of like an email that you're sending with no pictures in it. And that puts a limitation on what we can do with Lightroom. So let's take a look at what's in there, and we'll also take a look at how we might be able to get around some of the limitations. So first I'm going to pop into an image and we're going to do some, just real basic retouching. Some of these images have already have retouching applied, and I'll kinda undo that retouching and reapply it. With this image I'm going to the develop module by pressing the letter D, and then up here we have our various tools, and the one we need to is just to the right of the crop tool. When I choose it we have some options down here, and this image has been retouched in the past, which means it already has some things applied to it, and if I wanna clear it off, I click right here where it says reset. And let's see what it looks like when I reset. You just see a few little pieces of dirt on the wall I wanted to get rid of. So let's see how we think about it. Well first, over here we have, a size and a feather setting. And if I move my mouse on top of the image, that controls how large of a circle that I see here, and if you wanna control how big that circle is, you can either grab the size slider that's over on the right side of my screen, or if you have a mouse with a scroll wheel on it, the scroll wheel itself will change the size, or if you're on a laptop that has a track pad, on a lot of track pads you can use two fingers, and scroll up or down, and that would end up changing the size of your brush. If you wanna change the feather setting that's there, which is how soft the edge is, you can hold down the shift key, when using either the scroll wheel on your mouse, or two fingers on your track pad. So shift would do that. What you want is a brush just a littlest bit bigger than the problem. So the edge of your brush does not actually touch the problem itself, it touches the surrounding image. Because it's going to look all the way around, where the edge of that brush is, and it's gonna make sure it precisely matches both the brightness and the color. But if that circle is actually still touching some of the problem area, it's gonna try to match the color and the brightness of part of that problem. So I'm gonna get the brush just the littlest bit bigger, I'm just gonna click and let go, and when I do, it will choose an area from the surrounding image to copy from, and it will move it over there to cover up the area that I wanted to change. And so if I wanna get rid of this, I can get a slightly larger brush, so it completely covers the area, click and let go, and it should choose from another area. When you do that, it's not always smart where it copies from. Sometimes you'll find it'll copy from a completely wrong area in your image, where suddenly it copies from another dust speck, that you were gonna retouch out a second later, and so you can click on the bolder of the two circles, and drag it somewhere else, to manually tell it where you'd like it to copy from, or there's a little trick I like to use, and that is right near the shift key, at least on a Macintosh, there is the forward slash key. And if you press that, it will force it to pick a new place to copy from. Each time you press it, it will pick a different place. And sometimes it gets stuck thinking you need to copy a certain kind of detail, and when that's the case, and it just never picks the right spot, you manually drag it somewhere else. But that is using the forward slash key. It's not the same key we were using before to get a before and after preview of your adjustment, it's the one that leans the opposite direction. So then, there are sometimes when you wanna do retouching, and you need to copy from very precise areas. And so let's look at an example of that. I'm gonna reset this image. This is a shot taken in Iceland, and one of the most common things you need to do to your image is retouch out censor dust spots. So if you're already in that tool, and you're not zoomed up on your picture, but you can easily see the small defects, you can press the space bar on your keyboard, and click, space bar and click will help you zoom up. And here I can see a small little defect. I get my brush just a little bit larger than it, click and let go, and when I'm doing this to start with, I'm using a setting on the right side of my screen, which is the default, it's called heal, just so you are aware. If you're happen to try this out on a similar image, and it doesn't look quite the same, you might be set to a different setting called clone, will cover that in a few moments, but I just wanna make sure you know, if yours is acting different, just make sure you're set over here to heal. Each time I wanna zoom in and out I can just press space bar and click, and sometimes it's hard to notice exactly where all the little censor dust specks are on your image. So if you go to the bottom edge of your image, you should see an option at the bottom of your screen called visualize spots. And if I turn on visualize spots, there's a little slider that's right next to that checkbox, that if I slide it up and down, I should be able to find a setting, that makes it easy to see where all the little censored dust spots are on my image. They'll show up as relatively obvious little circles. You'll most likely see them in simple areas of your image, like blue skies. And with that setting turned on, remember I'm in the spot healing brush to begin with, or it's actually the spot removal brush, and at the bottom of my screen is where I found the checkbox called visualize spots. Now I can move my mouse on my image and even though my image doesn't look normal, I can still retouch out the spots, I just need to make sure I have a brush larger than the spot. I click, and I can relatively quickly, get rid of those little censor dust spots, which usually look like just a little round circle, kind of shadow appearing in an area that should otherwise look like a nice blue sky. There's one other setting that I have changed from the default and that is you might notice that whenever I move my mouse outside of my picture, the little circles that indicate where I've applied retouching, disappear. And only when I move my mouse on top of the image do they show up. You might find that on your version of Lightroom, that those circles are always showing up. And if that's the case, what you need to do, to get the end result that I'm getting, is the bottom left of your screen is a choice called tool overlay. And I believe the default setting is always, and that means whenever you use this tool, you're always gonna see those little circles. And to me I don't really like that because it's not easy to see a clean looking version of your image. I set mine to auto. And what auto means is only make it show up when my mouse is physically within the image. And whenever I'm outside the image they should disappear. You're also welcome to set it to never, which means you'll never see those circles, but you'll just see the end results, or selected which will only show the one you're currently working on. But I like it being set to auto. And therefore all I need to do, is move my mouse away from the image to get rid of that. If you do a lot of retouching, you should know that this checkbox called visualize spots has a keyboard shortcut. And it's just typing the letter A, all by itself. So if I type A right now, it turns that off. Type A again, it turns it back on, and if you don't remember what the keyboard shortcut is, just hover your mouse on top of this without clicking, and it should give you a tool tip, then on the far right of the tool tip, it'll let you know the keyboard shortcut, it's the letter A. So sometimes you'll find you'll have difficulty, where there'll be a little spot like on mine in the upper left, you see a little bitty spot right here, that I think is still a sensor dust speck, possibly sitting there. But if I go over and try to retouch it out, I get too close to one of the existing spots, and it thinks that I wanna click and resize that circle, to make it bigger or smaller. We'll choose undo. But that's not what I wanted. I wanted to make a circle that overlapped it. But when I got over there, it thought I was too close, and that I wanted to adjust it, and it's just too hard to get a circle, to get in there and overlap the other one. If that's ever the case, just put it a little bit outside of where you need it, like here, and then after it's been applied, you can click on it and drag it over there. To force it to be over where you want it. And on occasion that's necessary, where you're trying to just get these dots really close together, they're gonna slightly overlap, and if it looks like you want to move or resize one and that's not what you really wanted, just add the dot a little bit further away, and then reposition it. And you should be able to get rid of that. I'm gonna turn off visualize spots, 'cause I've gotten rid of just about all my censor dust spots, and there's one other thing I'd like to retouch out in this particular image. And that is if I hit space bar and click up here, this is a little building in Iceland, and it looks relatively old, it looks traditional, with the exception of this one little plastic box on it, which to me looks like either like a telephone wiring or something else and it makes it look a little more modern. I'd like to retouch it out. So let's see if I can do that. First, if I try to get a circle large enough to cover up the entire problem, I'd end up with one about this size. And if I click, I doubt it's gonna do that good of a job, I'll hit the slash key to see if I can get it to think about other areas, and regardless, it's not able to find something, that looks quite appropriate. Now I could try to visually look around and see if I can find something appropriate manually by clicking here, which is where it's copying from, and just visually looking, say I need the edge of a board there, and I need another one up above. And I might have something similar here, I can find out by dragging over this way, and seeing if I can get it to look appropriate. Trying to get that vertical line to line up, then move up this way, 'til that horizontal lines up. Right around there, and there I was able to do it. But it just wasn't intelligent enough to be able to do it by just hitting that foreword slash key over and over again, it's not always good enough to do that. So here I think that, let's see if I, I think that's relatively acceptable. But that's not always gonna be the case, so let's get rid of that. I'll click on the circle that represents that retouching, and I'll hit the delete key to remove it, and let's just look at other methods we could use to try to remove this. Well the first thing we could do is get a smaller brush, and instead of getting one circle big enough to cover the entire object, we can work with a smaller circle like this, and we can click and instead of letting go, we could drag and paint over that. So instead of having a circular area that's been defined, we can now have an oddly shaped area, and once I let go, after painting over the whole problem, it'll do the same thing where it tries to copy from the surroundings, but now it doesn't have such a big area to deal with. It has a much more narrowly defined area. I'll still try the forward slash key to see if I can get it to pick a good enough area, and as usual, when it does a bad job, I will manually click here and say where would I actually copy from if I was doing this manually? And I'll see if I can find, I actually don't remember what was exactly there. So now I no longer need to get that little shadowy board to show up, so I might just head over this way and get the edge of that. If I can't get this to look right, then what I'm gonna end up doing is delete that, and I would break it up into smaller chunks. If you ever wanna break something up into a smaller chunk, that is one time when you're gonna change from the setting called heal, to the setting called clone. So let's look at the difference between the two. Before we ever really get rid of this, let's just pick an isolated area of this image, to do some random retouching. Let's say I want to remove these little nailheads, or whatever they are in the siding of this. And by doing that, we're gonna figure out the difference between healing and cloning. I'm just gonna click on top of one of these, and let it choose a spot, and it should look just fine. But then what if I drag the area we're copying from, to an area that's completely different in brightness, and in color? Notice it still works? See where it's copying from? It's putting it over there. And that's because we're using a setting called heal, and what heal means, is precisely match, both the brightness and the color of whatever's touching the edge of that circle. And so what's at the edge of the circle where I'm actually applying the retouching, is blue. And it's the brightness of that blue board. And that's exactly what it's going to match, regardless of what I copy from. So it doesn't matter if I'm copying from this white edge of the window, I could also copy from the middle of this area, and if you move my mouse outta the way, it still looks fine. But what's not gonna look good, is if I move this to an area that does not have the right contrast, or not contrast, texture. If you look at what we're getting now, I'll zoom up here a little bit. Do you see over in the area where I reapplied the retouching, right over here? We now see the shape of like a leaf or something. And that's because what it's copying from the other area is how much it varies in brightness. What kind of texture is in there is what it's copying. And so when I look at this area that we're copying from, it has, within the circle, a lighter area on the outer edge, and then a darker, kind of triangular shaped thing in the middle. And it's noticing that difference in brightness, and that's what it's transferring over here. But as long as what I'm copying from has the proper texture, which is kinda the texture of wood, then it doesn't matter if I'm copying from this bright, white area, it can get it to perfectly match. If I drag it over up an area that has maybe a scratch or something within that white, I'm gonna see that scratch transferred over. But the actual brightness in color, is coming from exactly where the edge of this circle is, of where it's actually being applied. And so that's important. Now if I change the setting that's being used here, from heal, which means perfectly blend into the surroundings, to the choice called clone, then it's completely different. Clone just means blatantly copy what's over there. Do not try to get it to match anything. Don't help me, just copy, without doing anything extra. So if I change this to clone, now what I'm copying from the edge of the window, it just copied it over, and it's the wrong color, and it's not doing anything to get it to match. If I copy from the middle of the glass, it's the wrong brightness and the wrong color, 'cause all it's doing is a blatant copy. So you get the difference between the choice of clone and the choice of heal. So sometimes we need to switch between those. Now let's see how that could be the case when we're working up here. If I find that this is too large of an area to tackle as one piece, then I wanna break it up into multiple smaller pieces. That are surrounded by the proper brightness. So what I'm gonna do is just kinda break this in half. I'll do that by copying what's down below, when I'm using the setting called clone. So I'm going to drag across where I want it to apply, like this, let go, it's gonna try to decide where to copy from, and I'm gonna say, nope, don't copy from there, copy from down here. And I gotta move it around, 'cause of the edge of the board, that I need to get in the right position. About there. And if I move away, I can see a little bit of where the edge of that is, because we were in clone, not heal, and the area we're copying from might have been the slightest bit brighter or darker than what I'm putting in there. But it did effectively break this into two pieces. Where now if I use the setting called heal, I might be able to fix the top part, and then fix the bottom part. And as long as that heal comes out and overlaps the information that I just put in a few minutes ago, that's where it's gonna grab the color and brightness, and it'll probably be close enough. So what I'm gonna do here is now apply this to the top, and after I'm done painting across this, I'm gonna tell it to go over here and use the setting called heal, to say blend in with the surroundings. And then I'm gonna do the same thing to the bottom. I don't know if it'll be a perfect job right now, but you'll just see that I could tackle it in two pieces. And it might have a better tendency, of picking a good spot, or not, in this case. It seems like it wants detail, like you know, angles. And so if it's not doing a good job, that's where I might say fine, I'll tell you where to copy from, why don't you copy from down here somewhere. Looking where the edge of that board would need to be. Get in there about right. And you can come here and overlap some of these sessions you've already applied. Say okay, now I need to blend those together, and out to about here, 'cause that's where it wasn't looking smooth. And see, I don't know why it thinks it needs detail, but it doesn't, so you say, where do I have the right kind of brightness, maybe I copy from over in here. There. You see how I'm starting to get? I still have a brown spot down below I need to get rid of, so I'll just do another pass. And it's okay to overlap those things, but if you break what you were doing, up into smaller chunks, it doesn't always do a great job of picking where to copy from, but I can always tell it to copy from a different area. And I might have needed to expand that to cover more. But you're getting the idea that I just took one thing, put some stuff in between it to break it into two, and then I can overlap things. I think it was a better job when I did it as one piece. But sometimes you just can't fix things as one piece, and that's also the case when you have something like a panorama, where it didn't come out rectangular, instead it had some white on the edge. Well just using the choice called heal, and painting over those areas, is not gonna be able to fill it in. Because heal means blend in to what's out on the edge. And what's out on the edge will be white stuff, on the edge of your panorama. But if you use clone to start with, and put some blue stuff out on the edge, then come as a second pass on top of it with heal, then you do have some blue that you've artificially put in there, that it can blend in with. So you can get more complex with it. But there are definite limits. So let's see if this particular image might be able to show us some of those limits. Take me just a moment as it's loading a preview. If your images don't have previews attached to 'em, and this particular image didn't, then it will have to generate them if you ever zoom up on your picture. But do you see this thing in the corner that needs to be retouched out? Well let's see if we can do it using the setting called heal. And it looks like it already has some retouching in this particular image, there's a bunch of censor dust spots, I wasn't aware of that. So let's just see what's up here to begin with. Okay, there's a branch, that's what was going on. Okay, let's just see if there's anyway we can tackle a branch. Not sure if it'll be successful or not, often times with complex retouching, I have to go to Photoshop. But I just hate going to Photoshop, I so love being in Lightroom, that I'll try it here, and let's see how much we could do. So in this particular case, what I would do, is if I try to use heal, and I got a nice big brush, and I just painted over this entire area as one chunk, my assumption would be that it's not gonna do a good job because it's gonna try to match, what's right on the edge of where, you know, surrounding this area where I'm applying my retouching, and right on the edge of where the photo was, there's nothing beyond the edge of the photo. So in this case it might see those branches. It tried to copy from the middle of this building, which is kind of stupid, so I'll drag where it's copying from, to the other side of the photograph, where we have a clean sky, and see if I can get it. Wow, it's actually doing a pretty darn good job of it. Now if it didn't do a good job of it, let's talk about what I would have done to accomplish it. What I would have done had it brought in some of the old colors of the branch, is I would have used the clone setting. I would have painted only on the edge of the document, right up that edge like this, and maybe a little over here, wherever the branch touches the edge. And I would get it to copy from clean sky. So it just blatantly puts in some clean sky. And then on top of that I would heal. Because now when it gets to the edge of the document, instead of seeing the color of a branch, it's gonna see the color I put in there. And so that's when I would now paint over the entire thing, and when I'm done, I would set this heal. Heal means blend in to what's on the edge. Click on heal. It looks like I didn't get it all the way to the edge there, but you get the idea of how I'd be able to do that. I might need to move this a little bit. But it seemed to do a good job to begin with. There we go. So on occasion, we'd be able to do things that you wouldn't expect it to be able to do, the main thing is you have to decide, do you need healing or cloning? A cloning means a blatant copy, healing means blend into the surroundings, and it's mainly when something is too large, where sometimes you have an oddly shaped thing, it's a tree branch, but it goes, straight across your image and then halfway it deviates downward, and it's just so much easier to break it right where the curve is into two pieces, and deal with them separate. Whereas if you leave 'em altogether, and you use heal, you gotta paint across the whole thing, otherwise it'll see the color of the branch sitting there. Then, one other thing that the retouching tool is very useful for, is when you take a bunch of photographs, we can retouch them all at once. So in this case, I was at the Albuquerque Balloon Fiesta, and I captured this panorama. And I had changed lenses a couple times that day, and there were censor dust spots on my censor, so that if I were to look at the sky, I'm gonna find those little shadowy dots. I'd like to get rid of them, but I really don't wanna have to do every single image at once. I mean, individually. So what I'm gonna do is click on the first image, I'll hold shift and get up the last image, then I'll decide which of these images would be most useful to be looking at at the time I apply the retouching. And I can click on it. So it becomes the most selected image. Do you see how one of the images is a lighter in it's border than the others? That's the image I'm gonna be looking at, when I go to the develop module. I'll press the letter D to go to develop, I'll grab my retouching tool, and this image, most likely already has a retouching done, so I'll click reset so we can redo it. And at the bottom, I'm gonna turn on visualize spots. And look at how many censor dust spots are in that sky. Can you see all those circles? Not the ones that look like really solid blobs, those are the balloons, but all those other ones are censor dust spots. So I come in here, and gonna retouch these out, and I can go, as long as it's set to heal, then I should be able to go through these pretty rapidly. And if I had noticed that it's copying from the wrong spot, 'cause it suddenly copies from like, one of the balloons, or right there, it just copied from another censor dust spot. I don't know if you can tell or not, I hit the forward slash key to force it to pick another area, until it copies from an area that's appropriate, and I'm just gonna do this. I might not get rid of all these censor dust spots, because that's not what we're here to learn about. That's relatively easy. What we need to learn about is how to think about working on multiple images at once. The only thing that's gonna get this to apply these cleaning up the censor dust spots, to all the images is if on the right side of my screen, at the bottom, there's a setting called auto sync. That needs to be turned on before I start applying this retouching. Auto sync. If it's turned off, by clicking on this little light switch, I'd only be retouching one of these images at a time. And so I make sure that auto sync is turned on before I start my retouching. And for now I'm gonna say this is about good enough. And now, the problem is, it's applying this exact same retouching to a bunch of other images, but the other images do not contain exactly the same content. So wherever it's copying from might not be appropriate on every image. Because if I go over here and click on one of these, like the last one it applied, do you see where it was being applied is this circle, and where it's copying from is way over there. Well what if in one of the other photographs, that's a hot air balloon way over there? It's not gonna look right. So let's see what we can do about it. After I'm done retouching this, I'll turn off the visualize spots checkbox, so I can see the end result, and then I'm gonna switch between the various images that I have. If I go over here to the library I can either click on them individually like this, or I can use, 'member how the arrow keys would usually send you between images? But when you're in a tool, it might think you're trying to move one of those little retouching circles. And that's where there was the trick where you could hold down the command key and use the arrows. Command arrows means don't think about the tool that I'm using, just switch images. And so if I had all these selected, and I was in that tool, command arrow would allow me to switch between 'em. Now once I switch to the second image though, I wanna turn auto sync off. Because if I have more than one image selected right now, and I make a change, it will have changed all of them, I've already applied it to one image, I'm gonna now turn off auto sync, so now it's only gonna apply to this one image, any changes that I make. And I'm gonna look at the image and it's relatively obvious that some of those retouchings aren't gonna work for this particular image. So what do I do about it? I move my mouse over the image, I click on the circle for one of my retouchings, and that didn't work, and I'll use my forward slash key to say pick from a different spot, pick from a different spot. And for some of these I'll have to do that more than once, and other times you'll find that it's just, you don't need to get rid of the censor dust spot there, you click, you delete it 'cause it's on top of some detailed area where you don't notice it. It's when it's in a clean blue sky that you can really notice these little censor dust spots when it's on top of some detail, it's not as noticeable. So I'm either going to come in here and simply delete the ones that look wrong, and redo them, or simply reevaluate, do they need to be fixed at all? Once I've gotten one figured out, I might notice a few extra dust spots, that either were not noticeable in the other image, or were added since then, and then I'll switch to the next image, command right arrow. And I'll evaluate it, and I'll that, it looks to me like there's a censor dust spot that needs to be gettin' rid of, I need to be real careful, so I'm gonna not touch that balloon when I do it. In this one the bottom of the balloon where the basket is looked kinda blurry, because there's a censor dust spot covering it up. I'll delete that and see if it's one that needs to be fixed. And I don't see it there. And then command right arrow. And so if you're gonna retouch more than one image at a time, be sure when you're done that you go back and evaluate the individual images to make sure that that retouching actually worked appropriately on all of the images. Command, right arrow. Command, right arrow. And I just hover over and look at where all the circles are to see where would there be potential problems. And in this particular image the potential problem would be right on the horizon line, where a circle overlaps the horizon. So that's where I would evaluate, does that look okay? And if it doesn't just delete it. And see, do you still see the censor dust spot? You can zoom up to see it in more detail. And just keep doing that until you've made it through all of the images. So it might save me a lot of time to get my initial retouch to apply to all of my pictures, but then afterwards, I'm definitely gonna need to evaluate if it was appropriate for all of 'em. And then I've made it through them all. You'll have to constantly evaluate, is that auto sync setting on or off, because if you're not thinking about it at the time, you might not realize that suddenly you're affecting six different images, because they happen to be selected. You can always go to those images, and every image has a full history of what you've done. All you do is you click on the image, go to the develop module, and on the left side of your screen, one of the choices over here is your history. And so if you find that you accidentally retouched an image that shouldn't have, you can go back in your history here until before you were doing spot removal. And if you click on whatever step it was right before your spot removal, you can get back to the previous version of your picture. Just like with me when I went in to this particular image, I chose reset to get rid of some retouching and then show you how it would be done. And so I just clicked here to get to before I reset. So I didn't mess that up and I can easily get back. So you're gonna find limitations on these tools, the kinds of images I would not consider retouching with this is this image here that has very specific detail. This used to have people in it. There used to be like a dozen people in there. And you can retouch out simple little things, like if you wanna get rid of this cloud or that cloud, where it's surrounded by all nice brightness and color of what should be there if you had retouched that out, but when it gets overly detailed like this, usually it just saves time to pop over to Photoshop to do it. It has more precise tools for that. Another example is here, with this image I ended up wanting to get rid of this bank of clouds over here to make it just like this side. In Photoshop that's simple, I just selected this area, copied it, reflected it to the left like a mirror, and moved it over there, and that took me, maybe a minute or two. But in Lightroom to figure out how to do the same thing, I can try to go in here to the develop module, and grab my thing, having it set to heal, and say, get rid of that one, but this I'm not expecting to be able to do a good job. First off, as you clone from an area that big, it needs to find a chunk somewhere else that big, to copy from, and there's just not a big enough area. So if I really, I didn't even own Photoshop, and I still wanted to tackle this, that's when I would set this to clone, and I would simply break my problem up into multiple pieces. I would say, let's break it up right through here, and I would say put blue sky in there, copy from here. Let's break it up through here, and put blue sky in there. Get it as close as I can. So now do you notice that that one little piece of cloud is kinda all by itself isolated with blue around it? And so this area up here is also somewhat isolated, and I'm trying to break it up into multiple pieces, so that now I could come in and try to deal with those. And I doubt it's gonna be a good job here, I would just have Photoshop. But if you don't own Photoshop, I could do this, I would use heal, and have it copy from the other side of the sky, and then I would do the other part here. 'Cause I'm making it so we have smaller pieces, that it needs to copy from, and so therefore I might be able to find, more appropriate areas of sky that would be clean. And then when I come down here to do this. If I use the setting called clone, which is what I'll need to do, I can paint it in like this, and then I can drag it to an area that's approximately the right brightness, but right now we're set to heal, so it's trying to blend into things, and that's why we're getting kind of a whitish bottom edge. I'll set it to clone which just means blatantly copy, and this is where I might end up bringing up my feathering. Feathering means soften the edge. And I might need to decide to copy from an area that is lighter than this. I'm actually not sure why it's looking that dark. 'Cause if that's a straight clone, that looks quite a bit darker than this, doesn't it? And then you can also lower the opacity, to say make it so I don't completely remove something. That's useful if you have somebody that has like a birthmark on their face, and you wanna lessen it's impact without completely getting rid of it. Well first you completely get rid of it, with like the heal tool, and healing over it, and then you lower the opacity, which means let me see through that a little bit. So I can see a hint of the original, and therefore you can tone it down, instead of completely getting rid of it. So in this particular case, I'm actually not sure why that's so dark, because this area up here is not so dark. My assumption is it might be copying from the original picture up there instead of this end result. But let's see if I can find an area that might be workable. It's acting somewhat is if it was set to heal. Then I could finally heal that result in, meaning make it blend in. So I would say, finally, one last pass, to get that transition. I'm really pushing Lightroom here, it's not designed to do quite this. And I'll say use healing, so it blends in with everything. Now it's not quite able to tackle that. And you see how much work I'm putting into this? I could have had this done in a matter of, I mean, literally seconds in Photoshop. Where as here it's getting to be a mess, so I hit reset. Now when I did the same thing in Photoshop, here's my end result, and it was very easy to do. I copied from the left side, copy it to it's own layer, flip horizontally, move over, and I can easily get it to blend in. But I do wanna make sure you knew that there was a setting called feather which means have the edge be soft, you should know anytime I use the choice called heal, I usually have the feather setting turned down so it does not have a soft edge, because if I give it a soft edge, it's forced to fade out. If I don't give it a soft edge, it can control what's happening all the way out to the edge of the brush, and it usually does a better job of blending in with it's surroundings. It's when I have it set to clone, where I'm just kind of blatantly painting something else in, if the edge is too obvious, I might end up using feathering to get it to fade out. If when you retouch an image you wanna see before and after, we do have a check box in here, it's just kind of a light switch. It's right here, and that will disable this entire section of your Lightroom. And so if I come into an image like this one, and I decide I'm gonna come in here and retouch some of her forehead or something, and I come in here and work on little areas, and then I move my mouse outside so I can't see it, that little light switch, I can turn it off and on to see the before and after. And that's only gonna effect this particular tool, not gonna effect any of the other adjustments that I've done. And so it can be nice way of previewing things. Are there any general questions about using the spot removal tool? It is limited, but we can get around some of that limitations, by, you know, putting multiple passes on top of each other, that type of thing.
Is there any shortcut to see preview, like you make to the switch? But is there any key on keyboard so we can see previous result before?
Oh do you mean the little on, off switch? Not for this particular little light switch thing, you can set it up, we'll talk about it in a different session about a before and after view, where you can choose what the before is, meaning that the before is four steps ago, as opposed to the original, original. And that we'll have to cover in a different session, 'cause it would take a little bit of time to describe, but I don't know if a keyboard shortcut to just toggle one section in here. There might be one, I just might not know it. Alright then, let's move on to other things that apply to isolated areas of your image. And the next one would be known as the adjustment brush. With the adjustment brush, we're gonna be able to fix any kind of isolated area, here I'll choose an image, press the letter D to go to develop, and I could come in here and try to adjust this kid that's sitting her by using the shadow slider, 'cause he's in a dark area of the picture, so if I bring up the shadows, I could probably get him to be relatively bright. But when I do that, I'm gonna find that the shadowy areas under here get lightened up in other spots. And I might not want that to happen. So I'm gonna double click on the shadow slider to reset it, 'cause I like when these shadows are nice and dark in here. And instead I'm gonna do something that's gonna isolate my adjustment just to that spot. To do that I'm gonna go to the top right of my screen when I'm in the develop module, and that's where I find the adjustment brush. I click on the adjustment brush and when I do, it'll give me some settings specific to it, right in here, and you'll find that many of these settings are the same ones that we had when we were in the basic area, where we doing our basic adjustments to our pictures. But we don't have all of them, we have most of them. If I move these sliders, you will find that nothing happens to the image. If I come over here and use shadows and bring it way up, it won't change the image, 'cause it doesn't yet know what part of the image I wanna isolate. I need to move my mouse on top of the image, and then paint into my image. So I'm just gonna click and drag here, and that's when I'm gonna see the result. So the sliders over here, you first guess at what setting you might wanna use. Then you paint on your image to tell it where you want to apply, and afterwards you come back over here and you refine the settings, because you were only guessing before, you couldn't see the end result. So I can guess, come in here, maybe I wanna make him a little bit less colorful, so I bring down saturation, only a little bit, maybe I wanna adjust the contrast. That type of thing. But it's only happened where I've painted. But you gotta be careful when you're painting, so let's look at some of the options. First here we have the size of our brush, and we can control the size of our brush, also using our mouse if you have a scroll wheel, you can change the size, or if you have a track pad on your laptop you can use two fingers to change that setting, if you hold shift, and do the same thing, you can change the setting that's called feather, which is how soft of an edge you have on your brush. Or if you prefer, you can move these sliders. When you paint over your image, you'll find wherever you paint, you will get a pin on your image, a little circle, and that circle indicates where you have an adjustment. If you hover your mouse over that pin, it will show you an overlay of exactly which part of your image you're effecting with that adjustment. And the moment you move away from the pin, that overlay will disappear. If you'd like the overlay to stay there, because I can see when I'm up here, I have over spray beyond where I wanted to adjust the image, and it's hard to tell where the over spray is without seeing this overlay, you can go to the bottom of your screen, and there's a checkbox called show selected mask overlay. And if you turn that on, or if you just type the letter O, that's the shortcut for it, O for overlay, you will have that stay on your image. So that you can see it while you're working. You might wanna turn that on before you even start painting. Because then the moment you start painting, you can tell if you got that over spray or anything else. So now if I want to get rid of the over spray, there's a choice in the lower right, called erase. And if I choose erase instead of painting my adjustment in, I'll be removing the adjustment. So now if I move my mouse on top of the image, And I paint, you'll find the red stuff going away, wherever I paint. Usually I'd be zoomed up rather close, so I know I can be precise, and there are some other features that could really help us here, that we haven't talked about yet, so we'll get into them in just a second, but know that the choice called erase removes the adjustment from your image. If I'm done erasing and I wanna paint in more areas, I click over here on the letter A. You have A and B, and all A and B is, is two different brush settings. And what that's for is let's say that, in some areas you need a soft edge brush, and in other areas you need a hard edge brush. Well if you click on A, you can say, I want the feathering to be really high, which means a soft edge brush, then you can click on B, and you can say, I want about the same size brush, but I want the feathering to be really low. So it's got a relatively hard edge, and you can switch between those two settings by clicking on A and B. And that's all it is, is two sets of settings, that you can quickly switch between. Because sometimes you find you go from a big brush to do large areas to a tiny brush to do details, and you don't like to always come down here and move these sliders back and forth, so you set up A as a big soft brush, and you set up B as a small harder edge brush, so you can very quickly switch between doing large scale work and detail work. You don't have to use A and B, the main thing is if you've gone to erase, and you wanna go back to painting more of your adjustment in, you gotta choose one of these two to get back to adding the adjustment in. But you don't have to use them both. I'm gonna get rid of this adjustment as a whole, I'll choose erase, and just erase it off this area, I can click on that dot and just hit delete, that would delete the entire adjustment, and the little pin will go away, that's another way of doing it. Now let's talk about how I might have been able to help myself on this particular image to make it easier. I'm gonna get a semi soft brush, and there's a checkbox down here called auto mask. If I turn on auto mask, now when I put my mouse on top of my image, and I come into it, here I'll zoom up for ya, you see the little plus sign in the middle of my brush, that means I'm about to add my adjustment, and when I click, it's gonna look at what that little plus sign is touching. And it's gonna try to only paint this, on top of things that look similar to what's underneath that little plus sign. Right now I have the overlay turned on, that's why you're seeing red over the image, if I type the letter O, the overlay would go away. And I would instead just see the changes I'm making to the image, but now you should notice that it's not getting over spray onto the background. But you have to be really careful when you have auto turned on, 'cause when you're in these internal areas, if that little cross here never touches this dark shadowy area, instead it's always touching this more reddish surrounding area, it might not get the brush all the way into there. And where you expect it to. So often times you turn auto mask off temporarily, and you can just type the letter A for auto mask, and just do the internal areas, and get 'em so you make sure you got the entire area you were thinking of, and it's only when you get out here near the edge, where you go just a little bit shy of the edge. Get all those middle parts. And once you get to the outer edge, that's when it would be most useful to have the auto mask come in and help me, so I either click on the checkbox, or I just hit the letter A for auto mask, and then when I'm out there, I'd be very careful what that cross hair touches, making sure it never touches the white wall that is beyond, so that it never gets any over spray on to that wall. And it might help me isolate an area. But sometimes the edge can look a little abrupt, and so you might need to zoom up and go in it with a softer brush and touch it up a little bit. But that's what auto mask is for. And other times it might be a little easier to use it when erasing. So if you wanna see what I mean there, I'll actually do this over again, I'll delete it, I'll turn off auto mask, and I'm just gonna paint over the whole area, getting my over spray that I did before. So I make sure I got the entire thing, then I'm gonna turn on the overlay at the bottom, and I see that over spray. And then I'll zoom up, and I'll just choose erase, and that's when I'll use auto mask. Turn on auto mask, because now it's really easy to keep that little center portion on top of the white background here, and use it to erase away the over spray. Because he doesn't really contain any white, and so it's relatively easy to maintain that. Sometimes if I get into the absolute shadowiest areas in here, it might be an issue because it would be similar in color to what is in the young monk that's there, and that's when I might, like when I get over here, turn auto mask off to say don't go for colors that are similar to this really dark stuff, so I hit the letter A to turn it off. I get a small brush, and that's the only spot where I need to be really careful when I'm going around. These spots that contain the really shadowy areas that might be very similar to the subject that I'm trying to isolate. But just remember that red overlay indicates where your adjustment is being applied, but nobody else is gonna see that red overlay, so you don't need it to be perfect. You just need it to be where, if you were to turn off the overlay, and turn on and off this little light switch right here, which disables this entire section, you just evaluate, could you easily see where it abruptly ends or not? Does it look appropriate. And once I've got him isolated, that's when I fine tune the sliders over here, now that I've isolated him down. And now I might contrast a little bit, maybe just a little bit more or less colorful. More clarity or less, then I can get it right in there. Once you've isolated one area, you're welcome to adjust others. All you need to do to other areas, is if you scroll up to the top, there are two choices, there's edit, which means change the pin that I have been working on, you know that one area, or I choose new. And the moment I click new, what happens is, that pin that was here before, used to have a black dot in the middle of it, that indicated it was active. If I click on it right now, I'll get a black dot in the middle, see that? That means that's the one I'm currently working on. If I move these sliders around, I'm effecting whichever adjustment has the black dot in the middle. The moment I click new, the dots no longer black, and it means that that adjustment is not active right now. And if I move the sliders on the right side of my screen, it will not effect that area. So right now since there is no dot, no pin with a black dot in the middle, moving these sliders right now, is just going to choose what I'm about to paint in, the next time I paint. So maybe I come in here and I bring my highlights down, I get a soft edge brush, and what I'd like to do is just paint down here at the bottom and darken it, right down in here. Just 'cause I don't want your attention down there all that much, and then I can fine tune the settings, maybe I bring the exposure down just a little. Can see what's happen if I bring contrast down or up. Maybe a little negative clarity to even blur that. And a little less colorfulness. Whatever it happens to be. But if I mouse over my image, you notice now we have two pins, one is right over the kid, and one is in the lower right corner. And both of them indicate wherever I've initially started painting. So I started painting in the lower right when I did that. Then I can hover over each one to get the overlay, to see exactly where it's being applied. And if I want to create a new one, I come up here and choose new. And that makes it so the little black pin that's in the middle goes away to indicate that none of those are active, and therefore whatever it is I'm dialing up in here, is what I'm going to paint in next. And so I could choose, maybe I wanna just make the image less colorful, and I come over here with a brush, and just go over into this brownish area, saying I don't want as much color there. Don't want as much color up here in these little areas in the background that could be distracting, maybe you don't want as much color in here. I don't know if you can tell where it's changing, but I can see it, it's becoming less yellowish when I paint in here. And if you have a trouble telling wherever you painted, you can type O for overlay, and see exactly where it is. The other thing is on occasion when you're doing this you're working a different type of image, and this type I'll hit G to go back to the grid, and if you're working on something more like somebody's face, what you might need to do is when you go to develop, and you go to your adjustment brush, maybe what you're trying to do is you're going to bring the highlights down to darken an area. And I'm gonna work on her face. So I'm gonna darken a little bit of it, you might need to come down here to your settings, and there's a setting called flow. Flow means how much of the adjustment I've asked for, should be put in on my first pass with my brush. So if I bring flow down, and I get it down to maybe 20, somewhere near there, then I can pass over an area more than once to build up the effect. And therefore I can come up here and say, well I wanna darken this area just a little bit, and this whole area here a little bit, I let go of the mouse, and I say, well this area needs a little more darkening, so I did a second pass on it, but maybe even more, and so I do a third pass on it. And so the area at the top has one pass area, and her nose has three, that kinda thing, and you can slowly build things up. When you hover over, you're gonna find that the red overlay will be lessened because the first time I painted, it only put down 20% of the red overlay. When I went over for a second pass, it went down another 20%, so it's not gonna look all that dense when you move over. And so I can continue come over here and painting in, and see if I can get it where you can notice that I've done anything, where I'm darkening up that image. If I turn this off and on, you might be able to see a slight difference in brightness. If I can't see enough of a difference, I can come in here and try a different kind of adjustment. Here I'll make it obvious. Can you see that her face is changing? But it's changing where her nose is more so than where her forehead is. So sometimes you're gonna have to use that setting called flow, which means how much of the adjustment do I want to begin with? Where I can paint over again and again to build it up. I know you're wondering. What the heck is density then? Well imagine density as being the maximum. So if I have flow turned down to 20, or let's just bring it down to 10. And I have density at 100, that means I could paint enough times where eventually it added up to 100, because I put enough coats down that it did that. But if density is at 50, then it doesn't matter how many times I paint over an area, the maximum that I can get to is now 50. It's like what's the limit. But for most general retouching I have both flow and density turned all the way up, because I just wanna get the amount I dialed in, and I wanna get it consistently across an area, it's only when I wanna have a little bit less that I might do that, and often times I end up using flow when I'm erasing. I'll say, well it's just a little too strong on one side of the face, otherwise it looks fine. So I choose erase, and then I bring flow down to indicate how much do I wanna erase. 100% of it? Or if I put flow at 20, I'm only gonna be erasing away 20% of what I've previously painted in. And so it takes a little while to get used to these settings, but I'm very happy that they're there. And just remember you have a limited set of these sliders. You don't have all of them available. So let's look at a few instances when this is generally essential. And I believe I might already have one in here, I'll get rid of it. Here is a picture of a service station, and in the service station, there's mixed lighting. What's going on is there is a light in the distance, can you see over on the right side near the edge of the frame, there is a street light, and the type of bulb that's in the street light is different then the bulbs that are here actually in the gas station itself. These might be tungsten bulbs like what you'd have at home in your fixtures. This, I don't know if it's mercury vapor or what, you know, they have different kinds of bulbs, put out different color of light. So if you're not using your adjustment brush, the main way that you fix it if you have too much of a particular color is you remember we had a white balance eye dropper that we talked about when we talked about basic adjustments. And if I could move my mouse into my image and find something that should be a shade of gray, meaning something that shouldn't contain color, I could click there. And I think this is painted white, white has no color, and I could click and try to correct for that. I can correct for this and now this looks like it has white light, but now there's a street light, just outside the frame on my left, that's a different color of light and when it falls on the side of the building, doesn't look right. I can try to compensate for it, the building is painted white over here, so if I click there, we can compensate for it. But it can only do one or the other, not both. That's when I would grab the adjustment brush. Because in the adjustment brush, we have white balance, right here, temperature and tint. And so if I look at this area, I would say it looks too yellow. So I guesstimate, I would say we need to move this away from yellow. Blue is the opposite of yellow, so if we push blue in, it means simply absorb yellow. I'm just guessing at the setting to use, then I'll come in here with a soft edge brush, and I'm gonna paint over this area. It looks like I did too much, 'cause it's turning blue. I'll use a big soft brush, the bigger brush is the softer the edge becomes. And then after I get it in, I notice two things, a little too blue, and it looks like a hint of purple, doesn't it? To me. So if I think a hint of purple, well it's kind of purple-ish over here, isn't it? So I can move away from purple, and just a little too blue, so away from blue. Let's try it out. Okay, move the other one. And I can fine tune it. So I compensate for one light source, and then I paint in to compensate for the other. So this is what you do if you have an architectural shot, and there are some wall sconces on the wall, that are putting out yellowish orange light, and there's also a window, and the window is putting daylight in the room. And so you can compensate for whatever takes up the majority of the room. So if it's the window that's lighting most of the room, I would do white balance until wherever the daylight window light is coming in looks good, then I would grab this adjustment brush, and I'd paint right over the wall sconces, wherever their yellowish light is spilling onto the wall, and I would fine tune the temperature and tint sliders until both light sources look the same. Then we could end up fixing it. Does that make sense? And just like when we were using the tool for getting rid of center dust spots on our image, at the bottom of our image, or our screen, there is a setting down here that says show edit pins. And the default setting I believe is set to always, so when you open an image and you go to this tool, you always see those little pins on your picture, if you have 'em applied, only when you're in the tool, the adjustment brush. I usually have that setting in the lower left of my screen set to auto and that makes it so whenever I move my mouse outside of the image, the pins go away, and I find that to be the least distracting setting. There's one other thing special about this, well let's say that what I was doing to this image was not just the temperature and tint sliders, but it was some of the other ones too. Maybe I was coming in here and I brought the contrast down just a little bit there. Maybe I brought the saturation down just a little too colorful, whatever it was, but it involved more than one slider. Check this out. At the top of the list of sliders, is a triangle. If you click on that triangle, it collapses down all of the sliders we had to one, called amount. And that means that if, when you're done, you felt that you overdid something, and if whatever it is you did, was made by using five different sliders, well if you collapse it down so it's only one slider called amount, now when you lessen it through that slider, it's gonna take all five of the settings that were being applied, and lessen them all proportionately. Or you could increase it, and it would increase all of them. So if you wanna see what I'm talking about, let's take a look. I'll expand this, and just remember, that my contrast was at negative 33. And the temperature was at negative 53. So 53 and 33. Collapse it down, and now I'll lessen it. So now it's at 43 and 27, you see how it moved in both? Or if I wanna increase it I collapse it down, bring up the amount, and it's moving all of these sliders, at a proportionate amount to get that entire effect to be lessened or amped up. If you end up using this a lot, like you shoot a lot of architecture and you're constantly getting wall sconces of various kinds, and you know what kind of settings you like to put in your images, then right up here where there's a choice called effect, if you click there, you can save presets. So maybe you find that you love to go in to skin tones, and with skin tones you take the slider called clarity, and you put it in in the negative side, which softens the skin, maybe you also like to lower the contrast on the skin, just a little bit, and lower the saturation on skin. That's one thing I like to do on skin. And so if you do that consistently, dial it in in here, and then you go to the very top, just above where all the sliders are, and that's where there's this pop up menu called effect, and that's where you can come in here and say save the settings I currently have dialed in as a preset. And I would call this something like face fixer. Whatever you wanna call it. Hit create, and once you do, it would become one of the choices available in this menu. I didn't actually save that one, 'cause I already have some down here. I have soften skin, teeth whiteners, all sorts of other things. So just think about what you do for your particular kind of work, what kind of presets might you be able to really enjoy, and slowly make them over time, then it can speed you up. If you ever leave this tool and come back into it, it's not problem, just come back in, move your mouse on top of the image, you'll see the pins, and if you wanna reedit one, move your mouse on top of this pin, click on it so that black dots in the middle, and know that that means that's the one you're working on. Then you can come over here and fine tune your sliders, or you can continue to paint to work on a larger paint, or erase to remove from an area. So it's not problem going back into it at any time. Then I can show you a couple examples, maybe just one. Here's just one simple example, I will turn off our little adjustment. See that little hand in the shade? Or just lookin' too dark, and I just come in there and brighten it up. I know my mask isn't perfect, 'cause I can see part of the background shifting as well, but if you zoom in and you just don't notice it, when glancing, nobody else is gonna see your mask, nobody else is gonna turn that thing on and off, so they wouldn't know. I might also come in and do the other hand, I could come up here if I wanna darken any of these isolated areas, all sorts of things you can do with the adjustment brush. One more, I'll turn the little switch off and on, see how bright it look in that window? Compared to after? And see how much more colorful the cat is. So if I moused over it, you see there's three areas that are adjusted, I hover over one, oh, those are the cracks in there, I'm not sure what I did to them, if I wanna find out I click on it. And I can see over here what did I do, I made it less colorful where the cracks are. I click on the cat, what did I do? I made it more colorful, and I brought up clarity, and a couple other things. I go to the window, click, and I can see what I did, 'cause each time I click on each one, it loads in the settings for it, and if I come down here and turn the switch off, you can see a before, and after. And I can see where the cracks are, I made them more yellow as well. You can see that in the lower right crack. Okay. And I find using the adjustment brush can be great when you don't have the lighting you'd like. For instance, let me show you this one, sometimes it's just you want great light but you don't have it, and so here's before, it's relatively even lighting, and here's after, I just wanted it to look like there was light streaking across. So I just grab my adjustment brush, I painted it in, and let's see if I can, get in there, and I'll just hover over this pin. And you see how I just, I probably painted across the entire picture first, and then clicked on erase, grabbed a big soft brush, and said where do I want the light coming across. And it made it so it just wasn't as even of lighting. See the difference? I made this, I'll call 'em pods (laughing), I don't know what you would call those, the little bushes, stand out more. I got rid of little areas where the sun was coming through here at the bottom, and I made my wife's skin tone and brightness of her face get brighter. All with that same tool. And so it's very common for me to need to use it, I also use it any time I want to get more, something to vary more, it looked rather boring, and I wanna add some pizazz to it. Here not as dramatic, but at the very top, it got darker and less blue, at the very bottom it toned down a few areas. But I'm using a lot. There are alternatives to that tool, because sometimes you just don't feel like painting, to put some paint in, so let's briefly look at, some alternatives. When you look at this particular image, you notice that it looks somewhat hazy at the top. And that haziness kinda fades out as it makes it toward the bottom. And I could use the adjustment brush with a very soft edge brush, and paint across the top portion. But instead, I have another alternative. And that is if you look at the tools that are up there, there's this one here called the graduated filter. If I click on the graduated filter, now what I can do it is click on my picture and drag like this. And it remembered whatever settings I last applied, and I can see if I look at the sliders, the last setting applied was turning the temperature way down, like towards blue. Double click on a slider to reset it. And maybe what I do here is increase my contrast. Or bring down my exposure. But what's happening is, if I mouse over my image, we have our pin, which represents this adjustment, and if I hover over it, you'll see a red overlay to show you what parts are actually changing. But here's how it works. Any area that is above this line, this horizontal line here, it's getting the full force of the adjustment that I've asked for. Anything below this line, is not getting any change whatsoever. And then in between the two is where it's fading out. So, full force up here, starts to fade out, stops fading out down there. And I can adjust these by just pulling on 'em, like this. And if I grab the pin, I can move this around overall. And so I can get that in exactly where I need it, and then it's just a matter of dialing it in and trying to figure out what we'd like. There is a choice in here called de-haze we haven't talked about yet, it might be fun to use in there. We'll turn it up just a little bit. Maybe I wanna shift the color in here towards yellow at the top, whatever it happens to be. And you can put more than one of those in as well, up here at the top you have the choice of new, which would allow you to click and drag again to apply another one. Sometimes you have a right and left side that might need a similar change. Also, let's say I did something like that and there's one hill like a mountain that extended up into this area, I don't know that I have an example for this, but imagine there was a mountain range that was closer to us, extending into this, and that this effect didn't look appropriate on that one object, like if there's a person standing here. There is a choice over here called brush, and that would allow me to come down here and use the brush settings to possibly erase it off of a little area that wasn't appropriate, like a little house going up into that area, and the roof of the house looks darker than the side of the house, I can just kind of erase it off of there. But you'd have to choose the choice called brush to do that. If I reset this and I just see the original, do you see how much brighter this corner is? So, after adjusting this picture, if you can't get it to look all good to begin with, with the normal sliders, I could always go into that graduated filter, and I can click and drag to create a transition across this. I'll just fix it without optimizing the rest of the picture. But I could click about here, and drag, like that, I find changing the angles a little easier if you go off to the way edges, and grab the middle line, about like that, maybe I bring the exposure down or the highlights down. And you see how I can fix that. I would have done that after optimizing the whole image. Just a very quick fade out there, because I don't want it to overlap the car too much. Then, one final variation, is that we have something called the graduated filter. Or actually graduated filter was what we were just on, the other one is called the radial filter. It's just to the left of the adjustment brush, and with it instead of going across a straight line like we did with the previous one, I can click and drag to define an oval. And in this case, I wanted to make it look like this light is fading out and making the rest of this area much darker on the edges. And so I define this shape, and then I can dial in what I want let's see what happens if I bring either my highlights or my exposure down. And you see how I can make the rest of this look like it's much darker, so that it is, about like that, so it really feels like you're thinking about that lamp sitting there. When you do that, I just clicked on the image and I dragged to get this. Afterwards you can grab these sides and pull on 'em to fine tune this, you'll find that pulling on one side does change the opposite side, and my brains not thinking of it right now, but there is a key it's option. If you hold down the option key you can pull one side independently of the other. So if you need it to be like a really long, if it was a candle and you want the flame of the candle to light going straight up for quite a ways, you could hold option while you pull. If you go just outside of these, you can also rotate. And sometimes you do this, and you're like, well really? I didn't want the outer edge to get darker, I wanted the inner edge to get brighter or more yellow or something else. So there is a choice down here that is called invert mask. Invert means give you the opposite. So if I choose invert mask, it's gonna darken that middle part now, which wouldn't be an appropriate adjustment. But what it might be an appropriate adjustment, is shifting the color towards yellow to make it warmer, maybe making it more colorful. Little bit brighter, whatever it happens to be. But you do have the choice of invert mask, which means work on the opposite, instead of the outer area, work on the inner area. And the final choice is feather, which is how soft should the transition be. But we have the same adjustment sliders that we had when we were using our adjustment brush. There we go. So we have many different ways of isolating areas. We've looked at cropping as the simplest one, and then we got our retouching, but once we get into actually wanting to adjust things, we have three choices. That's the adjustment brush, the graduated filter, and the radial filter. Are there any questions about those particular tools? I know it just takes time to practice with them, to really get comfortable.
On that radial tool, if you wanna effect both the inside and outside, do you have to use two separate?
I believe you'd have to use two separate ones, you should be able to duplicate it, if you click on the pin that represents the adjustment, try holding down the option key and dragging. Often times that means duplicate, and if that works, then you could take the duplicate and click on invert mask and then use something else for the inside. If that doesn't work, then you'd have to draw a fresh one instead. But it is possible, you just might need to put more than one on top of each other, so that you can easily accomplish that.
Okay, you can right click on it--
It's choose duplicate. Yeah, so anyway he ended up choosing right clicking, that allowed him to choose duplicate. Then with the duplicate, you turn on the checkbox called invert, so now let's think about homework. With homework the main idea is to get comfortable with the tools that we have by working on challenging images, and have lots of things to practice on. So with homework, if you purchase the class, you get a Lightroom catalog that has a bunch of images that have specific challenges for you to solve, and therefore you can experiment with these tools on some preset images, and if you think about what we've done in this session, and with all of the others, we're nowhere near done talking about Lightroom, we still have 12 days left of working in Lightroom. One session a day, we still need to talk about things like noise reduction, sharpening, advanced adjustments, panoramas, and a lot more, 'cause we have 12 days left. If you wanna find me, as always, you can find me on various social media, or on my website at digitalmastery.com. So this has been another day of Lightroom CC Photo Editing. I hope to see you in the next session.