Menu Functions: The Custom Menu Part 2
All right folks. We are deep into the menu system. And it is time to close it out here. So we still have a fair bit to go through. We're in the middle of the custom menu, we're gonna continue on with that. All right, looking over at D3, we are continuing looking at some of the display options in the camera. The grid settings, as I mentioned before, there's a lot of different options on this, we can have a display color. Now the whole thing can be set under preset one and preset two. And you can choose which color and that a over on the side, that alpha channel, that is your opacity settings. So if you wanted to have a green rule of 1/3s in 50% opacity, you could program that all in here and then you could have two different presets so that you can quickly change between the two because getting them set up takes a little bit more time. Next up, you can choose which display grid you see and there's a lot of different options on there for choosing the center point or particular types of h...
orizon leveling or getting straight lines. Now one of the options is whether you want to have this applied to the LCD on the back of the camera and also the EVF or not. And so in this particular case, you can choose to apply it to the EVF so that you see the same in the viewfinder and on the back. Some people don't want it applied to both and can turn it off in that case. The peaking settings, we talked about this before. You can choose which color the peaking settings are being shown in and so you kinda wanna choose a color opposite of what you're seeing in the viewfinder. Red's pretty visible in a lot of different areas. But choose whatever color is most appropriate for the scene that you are doing. You can also choose the intensity level that the peaking is seen at. And this is once again according to your needs. The higher it is the easier it is to see but also kind of the more annoying as well. Image brightness adjustment will change the brightness level of the image that you're looking at so that you can see the peaking a little bit more easy. And so it depends on what's more important, the lightness and darkness of the image, judging for exposure or seeing that particular peaking setting. Next up is the histogram settings. You can go in and adjust where the highlight and shadow areas will start to blink at you. So if you would like an earlier warning system of when something's going out of highlights, you could bring that number from 255, down to say 240, or 245. And the same thing with the shadows on the opposite end of the scale. And so this just allows you to customize those peaking warnings for you. The mode guide is this little paragraph or this little sentence that pops up in the menu all the time. And this is both the best and the worst thing in the world. It's great when you don't know what the feature does and you want some additional help, but it's the worst thing when you wanna look at what's beneath it. And the fact of the matter is, is this doesn't even need to be in the menu system, but it's probably good that it is because you can simply turn this on and off on the back of the camera with the info button. So as you're going through the info, or going through the menu system, if you look at something and you're like, what the heck is this, I'm not sure what this does, you can just press the info button, and there's a good chance that they're gonna give you a little bit more information about what that particular feature does. If you don't like seeing that 'cause you've kind of learned the menu system pretty well, hit the info button or you can turn this particular feature off. The selfie assist. Should we really be assisting people taking selfies? I don't know. Well if you do, you wanna leave this on. This is very helpful if you're gonna be filming yourself and you wanna see a corrected view of yourself and so this can be very handy if you ever have the camera pointed and the LCD pointed towards you. All right, next up is D4, this turns the standard beep when you auto focus on and off. I think it's good to be a discreet photographer so it's a good thing to turn this off if you need confirmation that your camera is in focus, there is a little dot in the viewfinder that will come on when you are in focus. Next is a little sub menu that controls the HDMI features in the camera. So when you are plugged in with the HDMI, you can control the output size. What size of output do you want that video to be? HDMI control will allow you to control your camera going from slide to slide and a slideshow perhaps by a TV remote and so you can allow your camera to be controlled by an external device. If you are going to an external monitor, you can control the output frame rate, adjust as necessary. You can also plug your camera in with a USB connection. This would be for downloading images to your computer or controlling your camera with a computer or tethering to a computer. There's a number of different ways that you can communicate, it depends on the type of computer, the operating system, it may work under one system or not the other so if your computer is not recognizing the camera, you may wanna change the mode in the camera that it is listed as. All right, we're on to E, which is things dealing with exposure. First up is your exposure step. The camera is normally set to 1/3 stop exposures, which is where most cameras are for fine tuned exposure control. If you would like to adjust it to 1/2 steps or full steps, you can make that adjustment here but most people will leave it in 1/3 steps. If you wanna change the ISO steps to full steps, and there are some people that do this just to make it a little bit quicker to go from one ISO setting to the other 'cause most people don't need all the 1/3 steps in between, it may make changing ISOs a little bit more quick. Next deals with ISO and automatically setting little sub menu in here you can choose the upper limit and the default setting. Default setting you probably wanna have at 'cause that's the optimal ISO on this camera. An upper limit might be a limit that you don't want the camera to go beyond if you recall earlier in the test, the image quality was extremely good at 1600, 3200 was still very good and then starts to get more noise at 6400 and up. So you can be making the decision as to where you wanna stop it going when it's using the auto ISO feature. Another important feature with auto ISO, is it chooses auto, it chooses higher ISOs when it needs slower shutter speed. So the shutter speed is a very important factor when it comes to auto ISO. And you can choose to have it automatically set according to the lens, the focal length that is on the camera, or you can set a particular number and so if you wanna go into a particular number and set it at a very particular setting, you can do that as well. Auto is pretty good in most times because it will take into account the lens and the focal length that you're using for that particular shot. Next up is deciding whether the ISO can be set in auto in all of the modes or in only particular program aperture priority and shutter party modes and in most cases, I think it's best to have it available in all modes, you can turn it on or off as need be, in that case. The noise filter, not straightforwardly named, it's really the high ISO noise filter and so when you're shooting at high ISO with JPEG images, the camera can add its own noise reduction to improve the quality of high ISO images. So I took a look at ISO 3200 and ran my own test and turned the filter on low, standard and high and the fact of the matter is, the camera is so good at ISO 3200 there's very little difference that you will see here. So let's crank it up to 12,800, and notice the difference. Now, the higher the noise filter, the more it cleans up the noise but also the more it mars the edge detail on subjects and so I don't recommend using the high unless you're really sure that it's gonna do a good job for you. I think setting it on the lower standard is better for most JPEG shooters. Next up is low ISO processing. And so if you are shooting, you can have the option of detail priority or drive priority and so generally speaking, image quality is most important unless you're shooting action and you wanna make sure that the drive can keep up with this processing information. Noise reduction is really long exposure noise reduction. And in all previous tests that I've done with long exposure noise reduction, I haven't seen any difference between having noise reduction turned on or off. And so I did the test here and I did notice that there were some artifacts when shooting with a 32nd exposure, so you may wanna run some of your own tests, but if image quality is priority number one, and you're doing long exposures and you are shooting JPEG, you might wanna have this left turned on. There is an auto option as well, that will automatically turn this on when you hit longer shutter speeds of one second and longer. Next grouping at E2 deals with the bulb and timer option. This will give you the maximum bulb time that you can set and so generally speaking, most people don't like to leave their shutter open for 30 minutes, it gets to be a little bit long on the sensor. But taking it out to four, eight, 15 minutes is pretty common work. 30 minute is a pretty special long exposure. Next up, is the bulb time monitor. And this is what you're gonna to have to see what works for you in your own environment. What this really is, is the brightness of the monitor when you are in the bulb mode. A lot of times when you're in the bulb mode, it's dark out and you don't want the LCD screen with a really bright light. It kinda ruins your night vision, it can be very hard outside at night, it can interfere with the photographs that you're doing. So generally you wanna put this more on the subdued side, but start it out at zero and see how it works for you. So live bulb mode. This is where the camera will update the picture for you as it is growing in exposure. It's kind of mimicking the way that you would look at an image developing in the developer tray in the old days of shooting film and developing your prints in the darkroom. It's really neat to see, but depending on how long your exposure is, depending on how bright the scene is, you need to change the LCD update frequency, which is what this is controlling here. And so in some cases, you need to have it at a very short 1/2 second, in other cases, it needs to be longer 10 or 15 seconds. So this is gonna vary according to the scene that you are pointed at when you're in the live bulb mode. Same thing is true with the live time mode. This is the time mode where you press down once to start and once to stop, and it's the same LCD update frequency. We also have the longtime option of composite settings. And this is the kind of the, what I call it, I call it the intelligent bulb mode. And what it's doing here is it's looking at bright areas and it's not allowing those bright areas to overexpose any one part of the frame. And so this is gonna be a good technique I think for any nighttime photographer to experiment with 'cause this might make new shots possible that was not possible in standard bulb modes. Next up is flicker scan, and this gonna prevent banding with LED lights. And though it is kind of particular in the modes that it needs to be in, this is generally designed for the electronic shutter on the camera, so you need to be in any one of the antishock or silent modes for it to be effective. It'll work only in the manual or shutter priority modes as well. All right, metering. This allows you to choose which metering pattern you are using. This is something that we saw before on the top of the camera as well in the super control panel. Auto exposure lock metering. When you press the AEL button on the back of the camera, do you want to use the current metering centering or would you like to use something else? Some people like to have quick access to the spot metering system. And so you could apply the spot metering to the AEL button and when you press that, it instantly goes into spot metering. And so it depends on how you work with but auto would choose the same current setting that you have set for metering. Spot metering will link your spot metering with your focusing point which is really nice because it can change the size of the focusing point that you're doing your reading from and you can move it wherever you want through the frame, it can be very helpful in some tricky situations. Exposure shift. So this is one of those features I hope and I expect you will never ever need. If you find that the meter is drifting on your camera and everything seems to be overexposed or underexposed, and you would like to change the exposure of all, everything that you do from shutter priority to manual and so forth, you can go in here and you can change the exposure in 1/6 stops. So very fine increments, twice as fine is that you control with your own controls on the shutter speed aperture and ISO on the camera. And you can control that for the ESP, the center weighted and the spot metering systems. Most people will never need this, I hope you don't have to go in here. Exposure shift, in this case, adjust the metering system. Actually that's what we just talked about. All right, under the next category, F. F stands for Flash X-sync. This is the shutter speed when the flash fires, this is kinda the default shutter speed that the camera wants to go to when the flash fires, 1/250 is the top shutter speed. And it's good to have a good flash shutter speed 'cause it is gonna stop the motion of anything that moves. The slow limit is the slowest shutter speed that the camera will allow you to use with a flash. And this will depend on the subject material and how steady you are at holding the camera and the type of situation that you're in. 1/60 of a second is a good general shutter speed for that. But if you are wanting to allow in some of that background light, 1/8 of a second or even slower with the image stabilization on this camera is a hand holdable shutter speed in this camera. Do you wanna combine flash exposure compensation and regular exposure compensation? When you're new to photography, and it's all very complicated, it's probably easiest just to combine the two of these things together. When you are more advanced and you wanna separate these two different features out, you'd wanna turn that off. When you have the flash firing, do you want the camera to automatically kick over the white balance to the flash? And for some people, that's gonna be handy, in other cases, you can let yourself choose which mode you want it to be in so that you get the colors that you need. You can also hook up remote control flashes so that the flash on the camera controls other flashes to get more natural lighting. And that is a great way of doing better quality portraits with better, more natural quality lighting, it's a little bit more sophisticated than we have time to get into in this class, but you would need to turn this mode on and work with the appropriate products from Olympus to get that done. Next up, G is the quality settings. And so in here, we're gonna have some fine tune controls over the quality settings within the camera. First up, the general quality set allows us to preset the four settings that you will see when you go into the super control panel over the size of different JPEG images that you record. So if you have different JPEG size needs, perhaps you're doing one for prints and you're doing one for your website, and you're doing one for your online mobile account, and they each have different physical sizes and compression ratios, you can preset that ahead of time so that you can quickly change between them without diving this far into the menu. Pixel count will be for the middle and the smaller size JPEGs that you are shooting. There's two different options when it comes to the middle size JPEGs, and two different sizes for the small size JPEGs. Shading composition. This is an issue that happens when you shoot with lenses wide open that have a little bit of vignetting or darkening at the corner. In that case, might be good to correct it in a landscape type scene like this. And so the camera would know how much vignetting a particular lens would have on it. Now, as much as I like correcting this, on some cases, I like adding it in other cases, a lot of times for portraits and different types of photographs, I like adding a little bit of shading around the corner that draws the attention more towards the center of the frame. And so this is something that really depends on how you shoot as to whether you wanna have this turned on or not. The white balance can be controlled in here. We've seen this before, you can go in and tweak the amber and green settings of this. And so if the white balance isn't quite to your liking, you can tweak and adjust it as necessary. One of the options in here is capture white balance. And this where you would photograph a white sheet of paper, and you can save it to one of four different preset settings. You'll press the info button to enter the calibration, you're gonna point your camera at a neutral white object, press the shutter release, and the camera will correct for that white balance. And then you can save that to one of those preset four settings. This would be very helpful if you work in an environment that has kind of unusual lighting, and you wanna correct for it and none of the standard white balance settings in the camera correct for it in quite the right way. Next up is all white balance adjustment. If you want to adjust all of the white balance, I hope you don't need this. But if you needed to, you could adjust all the white balance and shift it in one color, manner or another. Or you could of course reset everything if necessary. Keeping the warm color. Talked a little bit about this before, we talked about this in the video setting. But now we're talking about specifically in the stills photography setting when you're shooting under tungsten light for instance. Sometimes it's nice to keep a little bit of that warm light on your subject for ambience. In other cases, you need to correct for it for technical reasons. And you can choose here whether you wanna keep some of that warm light or not. With JPEG images, you have the option of shooting in standard sRGB color space or the larger Adobe RGB color space. When you shoot in RAW, you naturally get those in the Adobe RGB color space. And so with JPEGs, so you have the option to go to Adobe RGB, and that would be wise if you were gonna be doing editing on your images, printing them, working with them in post production software. Next up, H card slot settings. We have two different card slots. So we can have different settings and ways that we are controlling information in here. And so we're gonna go into a little sub menu on how all of this is saved. So we have the different save settings here, auto switch is a good option, it'll work on card slot one, when it fills up, it'll switch over to card slot two. For those on a professional shoot, you might wanna use dual same, that way, you have the same images recorded to both cards at the same time. Whenever one card fills up, it stops recording and you can stick in more cards at that time. Next up, save slot. You can choose slot one or slot two as your primary card slot. You can choose a particular slot for video, if you wanna have video to slot two for instance, and images to slot one, you can separate your stills versus your videos in that manner. You can also select which slot is being played back in here by selecting one or two within the cards, you can save different folders. And so you can have different folders on different cards to separate out different projects perhaps. And if you wanna get into assign that, there's an arrow off to the side, you can choose an existing folder or you can create a new folder with a new number and separate your projects within those sub separate sub folders. Next up is the file name. And so the file name of any particular image that you shoot is gonna have this prefix to it. And you can have this automatically reset or excuse me, the digits at the end of this can automatically be reset. Or you can reset them at anytime you want. They go through a 10,000 count setting. Normally, you're just gonna leave it on auto and it will count up to 10,000 and then start over again. The first part of this is you can edit the file name. And so those first three or four letters or numbers can be changed. You can add in your initials, your business code, a project name, or anything like that by going in. There's two different options depending on whether you've chosen sRGB or Adobe RGB. And within each of these, you'll have options for changing all of those different letters. Next up, not real important unless you're gonna be printing directly from your camera to a printer, you can choose the dpi. Prints have traditionally been printed at 300 dpi, you can print at more or less depending on the size that you need, but 300 is a common setting. Copyright settings are kinda nice, because you can add additional information to the images that you shoot that will be on the metadata that is recorded with the image. You can add in a copyright information and creator information. This is where you're able to put in your name, perhaps your website or email information, somebody can get ahold of you if they have one of your photos. So first part here is you can input your artist name. Second part is a copyright name. And you can enter as many as much or different types of information that you may want in here. I often recommend putting in an email address so that if somebody is trying to get ahold of you, whether they're trying to pay you for a photo that they like or returning a lost camera, they have a way of getting a hold of you to let you know that they wanna get in touch with you. Next up is lens info settings. If you are gonna hook up other lenses, there's a lot of adaptive lenses that you can put on to a mirrorless camera like this. You can add in the name, the focal length and the aperture in there. And that way that information is passed along into the metadata so that you know what lens you were shooting with. It's kinda frustrating if you have these adapted cool lenses, but you kinda forget which one you were using when you were out in the field. And this allows you to send that information forward digitally, onto the metadata. Next up is quick erase. And the question for you is how easily do you want to be able to delete your photographs. Under a normal situation, you hit the garbage can button, you press the up button to select yes, this is really what you wanna do and then you press the Okay button. So it takes three button presses to delete a single photograph. If you want it done with one single swift, press the garbage can button, it'll be gone instantly. This is a little too quick for my liking. It's a little too easy. You gotta be very, very careful with that system. Do you want RAW and JPEG images deleted at the same time? Generally, I like to have those deleted, if it's a bad photo, it's not gonna be better in RAW. And so I just get rid of them. But in some cases, if you do wanna delete particular style of the shot, you can do that here. All right, going back to that quick erase, there is another option here. So the standard option is a three button press to delete an image, you can change this down to two where yes is the priority in the options. So when you say I wanna delete a photograph, the camera is essentially saying, oh you wanna delete a photograph is this, are you sure? And then you say yes again with the Okay, and you can delete it. And so this is a little bit simpler and faster with still a small safety line of precaution, it takes two button presses to delete a photograph. Next up is I, dealing with the EVF because you look with your eye through the EVF. So the auto switch is normally turned on, there's a sensor right next to the viewfinder that will turn on and off as you hold your eye or anything else up to it. Problem is is that when you put your fingers or something else beside it, it automatically turns off. And so there are reasons why you may wanna turn the auto switch off. The EVF adjust will allow you to go in and control the visual factors of what you see in the EVF itself. Normally, I would like to turn this off. Auto luminance will change the brightness in the viewfinder according to what other light might be leaking in there. And you might find it works out okay, I prefer to keep it turned off just to keep it consistent in its brightness. If you need to adjust the quality of colors that you are seeing in here, if it drifts in colors, after many years of use, you could go in and adjust it, there's a good chance that you will never need this function at all on the camera. Next up is the EVF style. This one is a pretty important one. This is where you get to choose style one, two or three. I like style three because it shows me the full image. But I don't like that much information over my image. So personally, I go with style two. I don't like style one 'cause I don't like additional colors that may throw off my judgment of other colors in there. And so different styles for different needs. Next up is the info settings. And this is where you get to check off all the boxes of things that you would like to see by pressing the info button. And so some of this has some restrictions on how it works depending on how other settings are set in the camera. And so be aware that not all options are always available with this. And so you do have to be in styles one and two and EVF style three will not work with some of these options. EVF grid settings. Once again, there are some restrictions in how this is being used. And so on D3 grid settings apply to EVF. That has to be turned off for this to work. And so if you wanna have customized EVF grids, you can come in here and turn on all of those different presets that we've talked about for grids. But these are just applying in the electronic viewfinder for you to see. And so once again, different colors and different opacity levels with that alpha channel in there. You can choose which grid is then shown. And this is all once again exclusively for the grid in the EVF. The halfway level is kind of an interesting option. It's this halfway horizon level that replaces the exposure indicator when you press halfway down on the shutter. And this is a very, very clever thought because generally you're gonna look through the viewfinder, you're gonna figure out your exposure, and then you're gonna press down on the shutter release, at which point you don't need your exposure indicator anymore, 'cause you've already figured it out. And it's more valuable to have that level horizon in there. And so if you do struggle to keep your horizons level like I sometimes do, this is a great way to have it in there as part of the frame but only when you need it at the press of the shutter release. So the S-OVF, optical viewfinder, simulating an optical viewfinder is what it's trying to do. So it's simulating an SLR in style, in dynamic range and brightness. And so what you see out of there is not exactly what you're gonna get in your final image. But that's one of the things I like most about a mirrorless camera is being able to see what that final image is like. There are other cases where you are trying to just get the best view from the camera. And that is where this might be employed , is where you are simply trying to view your image, you know that it's gonna come out the way that you want, but you just need to frame your image as best as possible. Next up into J, our final grouping within the custom settings. Pixel mapping would be if there is a problem with a dead or stuck pixel, the camera will do a scan of the sensor and see if there's any problems, it would then clone out that problem on future issues. Once again, hope you don't need to use this particular feature, generally not necessary. A lot of the buttons have a press and hold feature to them. So they're active while you press down and hold them. The amount of time that that feature is particularly active, can of course be customized. And this is where you can kinda dive in and choose, it's been set to 3/4 a second, if you want it longer or shorter, you can adjust it as necessary according to the particular feature. If the level becomes no longer level, you can go in here and adjust it and reset it if necessary. Once again, one of those features that probably and hopefully will not need adjustment. The touchscreen settings can be turned on and off here. Some people like to use this, some people as I mentioned who are left eyed like myself have their nose bumping up against the screen typically will have this turned off because I don't want my nose selecting where the focus points are. But if you're right eyed, you might find it as a very easy way of moving the focusing point around the screen. Menu recall is an option for going back to wherever you left the menu. And so if you dive into the menu some place kinda complicated to get to, and then you dive out and then you wanna get back into that same spot. It's kind of hard when the camera resets it back to the beginning of the menu system and then you gotta go dig back in to find where that is in the menu. And so having this on recall is kinda handy if you are going back and forth from the menu and back out to the same feature. Fisheye compensation will automatically digitally correct for their eight millimeter fisheye lens in camera. And so this is kinda cool for anybody who's purchased the fisheye, but doesn't wanna utilize the fisheye aspect for a particular shot. And so here is a standard fisheye shot. And I've estimated what one two and three look like. It looks to me like about a five, six and a nine millimeter lens. I also shot this with the seven millimeter lens to try to get those size comparisons. And so this will correct for things. And what it's doing is it's digitally stretching out the image, it's not as good as using their seven millimeter wide angle lens. But it's still a pretty good way of correcting for this in camera. Now there is a secondary option in here for fisheye underwater. So if you are using an underwater housing, it does not do a full correction for it. I don't do a lot of underwater work. I barely do any underwater work. But what this does is it corrects for most of the fisheye, but still gives you a little bit more wide angle in there. And so if you do underwater work with a housing, you may wanna test to see how these work out with your dome port and how it distorts. Next up J2, dealing with battery settings. Some options in here. The camera does have two different batteries that you can use, you can change the priority from the first to the second battery, whether you want it the first one in and out or not. Second up in here is the battery status. This is really nice, you can see exactly how many shots you've taken with a particular battery, you get to see the serial number, and how much life is left on that particular battery. And so you'll be able to keep good status on your batteries. Backlit LCD on the back of the camera. How long do you want that left on under normal usage? One minute seems to be a reasonable amount of time, hold means it's just gonna stay on as long as you want it. That can wear down your batteries after a period of time. The sleep mode, how long is it before the camera goes into a sleep mode? That is where it's going to conserve battery power and will take a tap of the shutter release to wake the camera. The auto power off mode is a deep sleep mode, if you will. In this case, in order if you were to wait 30 minutes in this particular setting, you can't just press down halfway on the shutter release, you'd actually have to turn the camera off and back on in order to wake it up in that particular case. And so you wanna set this appropriate so that your camera's not shutting down when you need it all the time. But that it's not staying on excessively long, wasting unnecessary battery power. Quick sleep mode will be available only in the viewfinder photography. And so what happens in the viewfinder photography when you're just using the viewfinder and you're not using the LCD on the back of the camera, the camera powers down in about eight seconds, the super control panel that you see on the back of the camera, and it just saves a little bit of power. All right last tab in the custom menu, J3 recording GPS location. Do you wanna turn this on or off. Now of course turning this on is gonna require a little bit more battery power, and doesn't always work inside of buildings and in deep canyons and so forth, it needs to be able to receive a signal from a GPS satellite. And so it can be very handy when doing travel and landscape photography. And so use it if you have enough battery power. I've used it a fair bit. And I haven't noticed a particular drain on the battery. So it's not too harsh on the battery drain, at least from my opinion. The nice thing is is that this will also show up in the metadata afterwards. And so you'll be able to see this in post production software. So there is an option of using GPS priority. Or you can use battery power priority and so depends on what's most important. Getting the most out of the life of your batteries, or getting the most accurate GPS settings. And so if you really do need to get those GPS settings locked in there, you can set that to GPS accuracy. If you want to take a look at the elevation, you can calibrate the elevation. This might be handy if for some reason it gets a little off and you get down to sea level on the shoreline, reset it down to one meter or something like that, you can recalibrate that if you are in a known position. You can choose to set meter or feet depending on what country you live in. Same thing with centigrade and Fahrenheit for temperatures. Next up, related to the GPS is the field sensor logger. And with this, you're gonna need the Olympus image track app. And this is going to track your trail of where you go with the camera. And it will show it to you on a map exactly your location. And so if you want to relive a hike or a location or an adventure, you went on with the camera and you wanna know exactly where you were, this works like a GPS device in that way. But this is gonna be more after the fact, after you download that information. And what you can do here, once you record all this is you can start a log, you can stop a log, and then you can save it to a memory card and so there is some memory issues to deal with. Because it does take up some space on the memory cards. Finally, we have some certifications that it is adhered to. Not really all that interesting, but it's there on pretty much most of the cameras nowadays. And that completes our custom menu.