You know how when you have an image you consume up on it to see it closer in different areas will match and I took this image now we want to zoom upon it so he zoom up zoom a zoom up and eventually you can see what it's made out of its made out of pixels just a grid of squares and there are many different ways we could describe these but one of the things we could describe it as is what resolution your picture is and so let's talk a little bit about that imagine you took these pixels that make up your image and you just looked at one of them and all you wanted to do is describe how big that pixel is when you print it so you could just throw ruler up there and say how big is that thing and if I looked at it compared to this ruler I would see it's about one sixteenth of an inch only problem is and photo shop you never use fractions you ever seen a place in photo shop breaking typing a fraction it just doesn't work that way instead it makes you type in a whole number or decimal so a sixte...
enth of an inch is actually point zero six two five inches that's not a very friendly name not friendly number I hate dealing with numbers come a visual person and I don't want to deal with numbers like that so another way of describing how big that isjust to describe how many of them fit in an inch, and then we would have sixteen pixels per inch or sixteen p p I that's all means is how big are those pixels when we print them? If you make the pixels bigger, fewer for them will fit in an inch and that number will go down if you make the pixels smaller, more of them will fit in an inch, the number goes up, but in essence, all we're trying to do is describe how big are the pixels when you print them, but underline the thought of when you print them, because as you'll see in a few minutes, it has nothing to do with what you do on screen just when you print it. All right, so we knows pixels per inches, just describing how big the pixels are. So then we have our image, and some people try to describe their image and describe how big it is it is, and they'll tell me on the phone or something. I haven't eight by ten inch image, and they're like, I can send you that file. Is that good enough? But I'm like, I don't know because they're not telling me enough information if you just tell somebody the dimensions of your image in inches, they don't know the quality is that image eight by ten inches, but other pixels this big? If so, it's not very useful picture for me? Or are the pixels little smaller, a little smaller or so small where I can't even see him? Well, I need to know not only the width and height in inches, but also the resolution meaning how bigger the pixels when I print um, it's on lee, if you give me the width and height in inches and the resolution that I actually know how much information I have if you don't include the resolution that I don't know the difference between this picture here in this one, because you're not telling me what kind of quality we have that make sense at all, so we need those pieces of info if you're going to describe things and inches, I also include the resolution number, all right? So let's think about another way you could describe the same thing because what if I don't know how big I'm going to print this? I just know what my camera gave me, and I really don't know how it's big you're in a print because you're the graphic designer on the photographer well, then saying it's eight by ten and three hundred doesn't really matter because it might not be printed at that size. So let's think of this in a different way so if this is eight by ten inches at three hundred pixels per inch, that means output the top where that ruler is the first inch that's in there should have three hundred pixels in it because it's three hundred pixels per inch, right and all the other inches across the top there should also have three hundred. So if we want to find out the total number of pixels in that area and just do some really simple math, just take the number of inches and the width and multiply it by three hundred because that's our resolution that will tell us the total amount of pixels we have across the width and I don't do it in my head I is obama calculator say with the the image in inches times the resolution and it tells me the total amount of information in the web I do the same thing for the height. This is ten inches tall and the resolution is three hundred pixels in each one of those inches. So if I did ten times three hundred all know how many pixels air in the other dimension, so to describe the exact same file to someone where I don't know how big they're going to use it, it might be more useful instead of saying eight by ten at three hundred pixels to just say hey here's the total number of pixels like at and not even talk about the rulers because that's up to them to decide I don't know if they're going to use it on the cover of a magazine or a little tiny picture within one column of that magazine, but if I tell him that they know exactly how much information I have, they don't need to know any more as far as knowing how much is in there so it's really twenty four hundred by three thousand pixels to be used it whichever p p I setting they want and all that means is they load that image into a page layout program and they scale it up really big so it's the size of a poster the pixels will get really big and we'll end up with a resolution setting this pretty low because not very many pixels would fit in an inch if they end up scaling it down and their page layout program to be one column wide tiny on a page. Well then a lot of pixels will be compacted into that small size and the resolution setting will end up being really high, but I don't know how big they're going to use it, so all I need to think about us within heightened pixels that's enough to describe it so let's see how that relates to one of the dialog boxes will find in photo shop actually, before I get into how that relates to things, if you do have a question by chance to see the mike sitting there, you know, it's a it's a quick one. I've seen the terms p p I and dpr dots prince used interchangeably. Is that? What is that about? Okay, thank you. They're also other terms, like l, p a and s fbi and stuff. Yeah, there are a whole bunch of them, but we'll talk about that gun matter. Um, so, anyway, if we have this image well, here I am in photo shop. I use photo shop is my slideshow program so that's why it turned off the the little keyboard shortcut thing. But when you turn that back on, so you can tell whenever I type keyboard commands eso one place we can go to look at what the resolution of our picture is and see how much information we have used to go to the image menu into choose image size. And so we get this and at the very top, it tells me the width and height in pixels. That's really telling me how much information is in this file? That's enough information right there, so I know exactly how much stuff I have, but that is used just for on screen. It's not used when printing because we don't. That doesn't tell me how big is the image going to print out? So down here it tells me, hey, if you're going to print this image right now, it's set up to printed it eight by ten and if you were to printed it eight by ten here's, how much information would be in each one of those inches? That's the resolution, and in this dialog box I can change that information, I can change it in two ways. One is, if both has to do with this check box. By the way, if that's turned off, what that means is leave us with the same amount of information we started with and just let me change how big the pixels print if I take the pixels we have and I keep the exact same number of him and I just say front of bigger what's going to happen to the file it's going to print bigger isn't telling the pixels to be bigger, or I can say compact those pixels make them smaller, some more of them fit in an inch, so when I printed out, since they're smaller, we have the same number of pictures going to get smaller. In all photo shop is going to be doing is the same simple math we did a few minutes ago when I took the width of the image and I multiplied it by the resolution that's all it's doing right here all it's doing is taken this number right here that says with and it's divided in it by this number to say how many of these fit in there in the answer is eight it's taken this number dividing it by this and whatever the result is is going in there that's all it's doing so let's say that I know I need a certain setting I need the number to forty that's what some people print with if I have re sampled turned off it means let's leave the same run information we already have in the file let's just change the size of the pixels when we put him on tape into forty in all photoshopped does is it recalculates the math it just goes back up here to say how many pixels do we have in the width and it divides it by this number whatever the result is it's sitting right here and all it's telling me is if I make the pixels this small then the whole picture got smaller and this is the end result so when re samples turned off, you're not changing the amount of information in your file you're just changing how big will the pixels b when you print and you mainly do that when the number that's in there for resolution isn't what you need and you don't want to artificially add information or throw away information you just want to see how big would this picture be with a setting I really need? We'll talk more about that later as faras when would we need to change it, that kind of thing? But the other thing we could do in here instead is let's say that I knew what size I wanted to print this so and here I type in eight because they want us to be an eight by ten so with his eight heidi's ten well, now what it did is since we have re sample turned off, it means hey let's, not change the amount of information we have, but we can still make it pronounce its name by ten, but to do so, we're going to need to make the pixels bigger and so it changed the number on me. Well, if I later on, you'll learn the general range you need for resolution that's pretty low for most kinds of printing, and so if you want to change the amount of information in your file, you there want to make the file physically smaller where there's fewer pixels that make it up where you want to make it bigger is gonna printed as a poster but you needed to add information pressure then you want to turn on re sample image and re sample image means change the amount of information this image is made out of so the numbers at the top are going to end up changing honest this is what we started out with right here and those numbers will either go up or down depending on what I do down here. So let's say this number wasn't high enough I needed it to be to forty so I'm gonna type into forty my width and height is going to remain consistent so here to forty all photoshopped is going to do is really simple math it's going to say you're asking for eight inches in the width and you're asking the pixels to fit this many of them in an inch so it doesn't take eight times to forty and the result is right there it takes the width that you've asked for and multiplies it by this thing and it just puts the result up there and it's really nice that is in here extender need a calculator doesn't for me so when I do that it tells me at the top though it says my file size and megabytes and if you look at it it says this file used to be two point six seven megabytes it's going up to thirteen that's a lot bigger it's going to add a lot of information to that image and any time you do any time this number is going up your image is gonna look softer than it did originally because it's inventing new information and it doesn't have the original scene to capture it from so it's looks a little soft when you do that if on the other hand this number was going down you're fine it's okay to throw away information if you have too much it's not going to damage your image so in essence when you have re sample image turned on its like this and you see if I can uh it's just like this you say I have eight by ten inches and all you're doing is saying how big should the pixels be in that eight by ten image so it's goingto make the pixels bigger or make them smaller but it's going to leave the dimensions of the image alone and any time you do that it's changing the amount of information in your file but let's look at other things that we can do with resolution resolution is one of those things where your brain can just shut off it's like on that used to dealing with that and so it does it but it's actually simple concept it's the width and height of your image and pixels and then how big should those print that's it now when you go to the image menu in photo shop, you have two choices you have image size and you also have another one called canvas size let's look at what canvas size does well, here we got a canvas and let me see let's say we had an image to put on this campus I'll go find an image let's go grab one from iceland so let's say we have an image, I'm going to bring that image over and we're going to print it on campus, taking just a moment to get it to look as if I had that I have this document set up in a special way that will allow me to clip an image so it only shows up in a particular area so let's say we have a canvas and we're printing our image on that campus that's what this is that's a piece of canvass sit in there and candace eyes, what it's going to do is just say, we're going to leave our picture the size it is already and we're gonna change the size of the canvas so if I were to change the size of the canvas, that would be the equipment to me doing this, taking that canvas in scaling it up if I scale it up, we're not gonna have enough picture to cover it and so it's just going to add empty space surrounding my picture if, on the other hand I reduce the canvas with canvas size, then we're not gonna have enough canvas to use the whole picture and so it's going to crop into the picture and make it smaller. That's what candace size is going to do in photo shop it's is if it's thinking about your image is if it's a piece of canvas and if you add canvas size, it adds a empty space if you take away canvas size it crops into your image all right, that's exactly what candace sized us so let's, take a look at here I have a picture, I'll go up to the image menu, I'll choose canvas size and what it does is it tells me the width and height of my picture as it stands right now, I can measure that either in inches because it can look at the resolution setting of my file to figure out what that is or as pixels to paint on what it is you prefer to look at and what I can do in here let's work with inches is I could say I want my campus to be bigger than it is already so right now it's thirty five inches, I'm gonna make it forty and for the height I'll make it thirty so now we're gonna take the campus we were working with, make it bigger, so that means there's going to be extra space around our picture and down here, it says, where should you put the original image within that new, larger candace? Would you like it to be in the middle, where the extra canvases stretched out over here, where these arrows are pointing, or we're going to have your picture at the bottom, where the only ad space above it and left and right or don't want in the lower left corner? We're just ad space above into the right? I'll leave it in the middle when I click, ok, we're going to get extra space around my picture, just as if we made it bigger. Choose undo if I instead going to canvas size and I make these number smaller. Well, that's, when it's going to not have enough canvas to completely show me the picture, and so I could come in here and say, I want this to be twenty inches but twenty inches, and now it's going to be cropping around all sides of the image and again, here, I can say, well, where should that be relative to the original picture, if I end up clicking down here now, it's going to crop from the right side and from the top, but it's not going to crop the bottom and the left just tells you a little bit. Look at the arrows there pointing at the parts they're gonna be cropped if it's in the middle it's cropping from every side it's over here, it's going to crop from the top, the left in the bottom so you just tell it where you want your original within that I click ok? And since these numbers are smaller than we started with you, see up here is what we started with down here's what we're asking for when I click ok? It'll warned me, this is hey, you're going to throw away some picture just saying now and I usually choose don't show again just because it's a common task for me to do, and I don't like having to click proceed each time and there you see a crop, my image, but when I was in canvas size, there was one other thing in there to think about, but to other things, and that is there's, a check box called relative if relatives turned off, you're telling photoshopped the final dimensions that you're looking for, let's say, I know I'm going to print this image on a piece of literal canvas that I've purchased it it's I bought it it's, forty by forty inches so I can come in here and type in I want forty by forty inches and I'm telling it the final size I want when I click ok that's how much I have if on the other hand, I don't know how big of a piece of canvas I, um, purchase that's not what I'm using, what they wanted to be an image kemba size instead, I just want to add space around this picture because I want to put a border on it for a copyright notice or something else and I don't know if in exact size I just know I want an extra inch of the bottom for my copyright well that's, when you say relative and these numbers go to zero and it says compared to the size of the original picture, how much do you want to change that size? Well, I can come in here and say height I want to add one inch I'm going to say add one inch to the height from whatever size it started out as let's add an inch down here I say, where should the original b he compared to that extra engimatic right now? It added both on top and bottom because this thing's in the middle I can put it up here at the top though, and now it's just going to add it up the bottom click. Ok, I get an extra inch of my picture so you can either type in the absolute result you want, which is the with or the height of the entire document or if you turn on relative, you can instead say, compared to the size it is right now, add or take away this much. That could be useful. Let's say you have a little border around every picture that somebody gave you, and you figure out that that border is always five pixels in size, but their pictures vary in size. Some are huge summer small. All of them have five pixels of a border around it that you hate. We'll just come into every single image, go here two pixels and say you want to take away not five pixels because there's five pixels all the way around the picture. So in the height it's really five pixels from the top and five from the bottom, you need to get rid of for a total of ten, so I'll type in ten and ten and now it's going to take away ten inches in the height, ten inches in the with its gonna do it all the way around the picture because I have this thing centered, which will mean five pixels from the top five pixels from the bottom five pixels on all sides click ok, and in this case I added the space. What I need to do if I want to take it away is put in negative in front of it negative would mean take away that much, so you get the sense for canvas size canvas size is not going to change the size of your original picture. You started with it's going to instead ad space to it empty space or take away space cropping into your picture finally at the bottom, it says canvas extension color, and that simply means if you ad space well, color should the space be, and you can set it to your foreground and background colors. Those are the colors you paint with over at the bottom of your tool panel. If you happen to have already chosen a exact color, you need where you can choose some presets white, black or gray. If you choose other, you can pick whatever color you want, but that just means what should I do with the empty space now? This thing here, though, sometimes will not be in effect, and that will be if you have a layer called the background, we'll talk about what background layer means, then you're going to have to choose what color is there if you don't have a background because he double clicked on and changed it then when you got a canvas size, this will be great out that's because it can add empty space it doesn't have to be full of something like a solid color, and if you add space to your document, it shows up with the checkerboard the checkerboard indicates an area that's empty there's just nothing there and then later on you could put something in their picture anything s o if you notice that it's ever great out it's because you're working on a normal layer and not the background, we'll talk about why the background has to have something in there can't have a checkerboard once we get on the layers, so there are many different things we can use when it comes to resolution, there are some general ideas that might be helpful and let's think about him I'm going to see if I use a white board over here let's say I need a scan, a picture, right? Our original picture that I have let's say it's out of my you know, just a notebook inside of the magazines out of anything in my original picture is four inches wide and but I know I'm going to need to use that and I need to print it at eight a half by eleven size so the width of the image is going to have to end up being eight and a half inches original and this is what I want I'll show you in a few minutes what resolution settings you might need for things I'm just going to pick a number off the top of my head right now so what I need is eight and a half at uh let's just say one hundred to keep the math simple that's one hundred pp I so original image I got a physical image in my hand it's out of a magazine it's out of anything that's out of my scrapbook of my grandparent's thinks I'm going to scan it use it for something I want to use it eight and a half inches wide in my printer requires a resolution of one hundred so I need to figure out what settings do I use when I scan well it's actually pretty simple math here let's find out the total amount of information we need in the width this is how much we want in the with this is how small the pixels are so eight and a half times one hundred should tell us the answer so is not going to be eight fifty is that right? If I'll mess up on math any time I'm on camera or live just say no and it could be the most simple mess up sometimes I don't know how to spell the word though that kind of stuff so but anyway we you need this many pixels total in the width of our image is not what that math tells us I didn't have friends on earth so here's what we're starting out with we only got four inches to begin with and we want to end up with eight hundred fifty pixels so we need to figure out what's going to deliver eight hundred fifty pixels, what four hundred times what equals eight hundred fifty so all we do is take the end result we want and just divide by the number of inches we have what's the answer there I don't know I use a calculator whatever the answer is there would go right here and it tells you the scanning resolution you'd want to use. So what are we doing? We're saying you want this size to use isn't in the end and you do the simple math of with time's resolution and it tells you right here this is how much we need so we say ok, we need that much but we have four inches to start with so you divide by four it is whatever the end result is two hundred twelve point five two hundred twelve point five is the resolution I want type into my scanner that's going to take that many pixels out of each one of those inches and if you got four inches total give you that much total which is exactly how much you need I don't know if this makes sense to you or not but it's actually overly simple math it's just I don't like doing math like this so I used a calculator thanks for using one but that would tell me what to scan it so you're the handbook will have this in it I gave it usaa note to karen exactly how to think about it in a simplified form and it would tell you exactly what to type in the only problem with this is when you're done it would give you a four inch wide image at two hundred twelve point five p p I because your scanner doesn't know that you did this other math it has no idea all it knows you typed in this number and ask for that much and it says, hey you scan something this big and you told me to give you that many pixels and an inch and that's what it did so when it was done right here I would need one more step I would go to the image science dialog box in an image size there's a check box for re sample image a turnoff to say don't change how much information we have I've got the right amount I just need to tell you how big the pixels should be so I go to image size had turned off free sample and I would type in what I desired right there and it would just be calculate the math really simply to say, ok, now we're going to print those out of one hundred pixels per inch, and we have the right amount of info if this doesn't make sense to you right now, just look in the handbook do it at a time when we're not talking about all the other details of resolution, but that's for scanning let's see what else on screen use let's talk about that photo shop is different than most other programs when it comes to on screen use of images it's going to be able to to show an image just about any size you want, you can zoom in and zoom out remember how I hold on the command key and hit plus or minus that's controlling windows to zoom in and zoom out and it's just going to be showing you that most likely to fill in your whole screen when you first open. It doesn't mean that that's the same size it's going to appear somebody else saw it in an email program, or if you uploaded it to website or anything like that, so photoshopped gives you a percentage. The percentage is shown in two different areas when you're looking at your image, the first area is in the bottom left of your document, you'll find a little percentage showing up right there. You'll see the same percentage appear at the top of your image where it gives you the document name you see it right here, those two will always match and what that's doing is it's telling you how large is that displaying the image compared to how it would look in other on screen applications like a web browser and email program or most others? And when I say on screen, I mean applications where that's, what you used the application for is on ly on screen, I don't mean in a professional page layout program or something like that, but for something where the end result is on screen, so if you want to truly see it at the same size, it would appear in a web browser or an email program or anything like that, you need that number to, say one hundred percent you're looking at it at one hundred percent of how big it would look and other programs, so I'll zoom out until that number changed one hundred well that's a pretty darn big image email to somebody have to have him scroll through like this to see the little birds on top of the icebergs and, you know, see the whole image I think that file would be excessive in size to be able to just email someone to just casually show your vacation photos, that kind of stuff so let's, look at how can I get this to be the size I wanted to be when somebody sees it in an email program or when they see it in a web browser, all I'm going to do is zoom in or zoom out until it's the size I want them to see that, so we'll just two minutes come out and I think about that biggest, pretty good for an email so here's how we're going to get it to appear that size in a new email program? All we're going to do is look at the percentage that's up here I see on this particular image sixteen point seven and that tells me compared to what somebody else would see it like a email program you're revealing at sixteen point seven percent of that and so here's what you do good image size in an image size, the resolution setting down here is completely ignored if something's used on screen because this right here controls how big things are when they are printed. If you're never going to print the image, this number might as well be blank because usually what happens on screen is it just looks at how much information do you have total in the width and height and your screen is made out of pixels it's made a little bitty squares it just says we're going to use up the squares on our screen and we're going to use up however many you give us in your image if this number is bigger than the resolution of your screen it's going to be large of them on the screen, we have to scroll to see everything that kind of thing putting like here's what I'd do if I want to get it to appear at the size of an email program or web browser, I turn on re sample image because I need to change the amount of influence a file and I changed the width or height doesn't matter which one two percent in here if I left it one hundred were going to say let's, deliver one hundred percent of what we have right now to the email program or to the web browser, but we're only viewing our image at sixteen point seven percent if I want to only give something that big to my email program or web browser, I just need a type in that percentage right here. Sixteen point seven and now click ok and it's going to scale down my image right now. It's still viewing it though it's sixteen point seven percent I'm not viewing it that size it's going to show up in an email program or web browser that need to be one hundred? So let's zoom up two hundred percent and now it's exactly the size I was looking at previously s so if I save this image in an email to somebody, they're going to see it exactly that big put it in a web browser it's going to be exactly that big visually because one hundred percent view in photo shop is what I would call internet view it means in the internet or email that's how big it a look so what we do there we just took an image we zoomed out on it until it was a size we wanted it we looked at the percentage at the top we went to image size you gotta turn on re sample image so it can change the amount of info in your file and we type that in it's a percentage then we can save the picture and it's the right size the resolution number that's attached to your picture when it comes to the internet does not matter at all if I go to image size and I come in here and tell it I want to scale it down to in this case twelve and a half click ok just so you know this image which one hundred percent view looks like this I can come up here and choose image size and you see it has a resolution the resolution happens to be seventy two that's used on lee for printing if I take the exact same image and I duplicated, I go to image size on this one and I say let's not change the amount of information let's just change how big the pixels are I hope it can take that high I don't know if you can take a number that high we'll find out that's a lot of pixels on an age did uh now at one hundred percent view both of these images look identical on switching between them right now, I don't see any difference whatsoever, right? If I look at their numbers, this image, though, would print at four inches wide because the pixels you don't have very many of image, they're pretty big take the same amount of information though the other image gotta image size and you're saying print those pixels really small so you could fit a whole bunch of them in an inch now it's going to print out absolutely tiny the only time I'm going to notice that is not on screen in my email program, not on screen on my web browser, but if I hit the print button, these two print images would print it dramatically different sizes or if right now I come over here and you save as when I actually didn't check this, but I'm going to see if we have in designing this machine will find out in a minute if we don't I won't be able to show you but if I save both images if I have a program designed for gay we havin designed e let's hope it works when I open it anyway if I open a program designed for professional publishing where it's a metaphor is a page and ate my hat a half by eleven page and it's thinking about printing it's not thinking about on screen so much then when I load those two images they're going to look dramatically different because that setting called resolution on ly applies when you're thinking about printing come on so all I'm going to do here is create a new document and after creating that new document I'll just come in here and make it ah letter size piece of paper and I'm gonna go to my desktop that's where I saved those images and I'm just going to drag the two images that I have here is the low resolution one and I hope the highlight resolution one is right there will drag him over here to the layout in place him and they're going to look beyond dramatically different let's zoom up that's an eight a half by eleven sheet of paper you see one up there that's the one with the resolution of three thousand were saying take that same amount of information and make the pixels really small and so when we're in a program designed for professional publishing where it has the metaphor of a sheet of paper therefore it's thinking about printing its thinking about inches then those two images going to look different the same two images though looked at on a web browser will be exactly the same size looked at an email program exactly the same size because it only looks at width and height and pixels I could take the image that's here in scale it down here in a patient out program scale it way down then like should be able to go to an area called info if I can find it in info usually when you click on an image it will tell you the effective peopie eye right there says actual was seventy two and if you can read this actual which means in photo shop it was set to but we scaled the sucker down dramatically and any time you scale down an image when you're in in designer page layout for him it doesn't have access to the original information on the file so all it can do is make the pixels that make it up smaller when you do that more of them fit in an inch and when I get it down this small it tells me hey, this change to this number right here so if I scaled those two cell of the same size the numbers would match and the only reason the picture that top looks bad is there's a setting and in design for display performance which is set right now to it well equality setting but anyway those two files have the same money and fell, so if you're going to use something for print, use the resolution setting overly important if you're going to use something for on screen use, the resolution setting doesn't matter whatsoever it's simply ignored so when you're working with resolution there's in terms and let's look at those terms get rid of our little notes here I love that you're using the white board by the way, I like the way I do um okay terminology you're going to find the terms of p p ay you're always going to have d p ay there's also s p I and there's el p I and I'm sure we could come up with the other ones just like there's miles per hour and there's kilometers per hour we could come up with a whole bunch of when we come up with centimeters per hour if you want go slow enough car uh but what do these things stand for? Because I hear these two terms used interchangeably well p p I is pixels per inch all of these the p I's per inch so if this is pixels per inch this is dot sprint, jj so what the heck is the difference between a pixel ana dot? Well, here's the difference dots can either be on or off and that's it that's like using ink when you print out a printing press I give you putting down or not, I can't put it halfway down. Uh, so if you ever look really close at your picture and let's say you look at a magazine under magnifying glass it's going to be solid dots that the image is made out of let's see if I can find an example, I'm not certain if I have one or not yeah, all right, so here is your shade debris that you got your picture and you end up trying to print that out, but when you print it out, if you look at her magnifying glass, it doesn't look like those shades instead, if you have an ink jet printer, it looks like this if those dots or solid where solid black and they're either on or off, they're not if all they can have it one of two states either there or not, then you're talking about dots. If, on the other hand they can vary in how bright they are, they can vary in what color the hour and all that, then you have pixels instead, right? In the end it doesn't matter if you use the wrong term to describe things don't matter at all the example he is in the handbook is it's like going to a car repair place you got a flat tire but you walk in and say I got a problem with my car my wheel is bad well it's not your wheel that's bad your wheel is fine it's the tire that's mounted to the wheel that has the problem right? But if you walk in and say there's something wrong with my wheel mechanical walkout we'll look at it instantly go yeah it's not your wheels your tire but he'll say that inside he would say it to you, he'll say ok, I'll get you fixed and get you back on the road right it's just a slightly different terminology, but dots can either be on or off it's what your printer uses so if you see the resolution or printer it's dots per inch but if it's your picture, your picture doesn't have solid black and solid white dots, it has shades of gray shades of color, all sorts of things and so it's pixels anytime you describe an image in its resolution, it's really pixels french but know that it's so universally interchange between them that other people will caught dots branch even though they're using the wrong term but don't try to correct them because you're only going to confuse them just so you know you know you can call it pixels per inch and when they start calling it dot sprint either switch over so that they're comfortable with what you're saying or just in your head say it's really pixels prince but I'm gonna say dots right now for you ok that makes sense so pixels per inch dots per inch then we have s p I what the heck is that well that's what your scanner uses s p I is samples per inch it's how often does it look at your picture in sample what color it is it might not even label espy on your scanner but that's what it's really known as sample sprint but you can use it interchangeably with these it doesn't really matter in the end then finally l p I is lines per inch and that has to do with printing out a pretty press when you print on a printing press your image is made out of what's known as a half tone and it looks similar to this where different shades of gray are made of different size circles and if you had a whole ruler up and count the spacing of these circles how many of them fit in an inch they called lines per inch and you don't have to use circles you can use any kind of shape you want ovals, diamonds anything just bury their size put him on a grid and you would be doing the same thing and so since some people you circle some people use oval, some people use other shapes, they just caught lines french how many lines of the shape fit in an inch? So these are all the terms but just know when you're talking about your images it's pixels per inch other people are going to use dp I as the charm just because they don't know any better and but just so you know, they really mean pixels per inch if they're talking about a picture, so if that helps so now we've got our picture and we want to print it in different ways and so I can show you just some simple settings to use recommended settings so if you have your image here let's say it's, grayscale and we have different ways we print it if we printed on inkjet printer if you look really close at it, it looks kind of like this we don't print it the same way on a printing press, though, because these little dots and the lighter shades would be too darn small and just that little variation here isn't it is easy to reproduce on a printing press so it looks slightly different interpreting press if you looked up really close, so that means the different kind of output devices have different requirements for how much information you want to feed them so let's look at some recommended settings here you're gonna find a range you could think of this is the lowest safe setting in the highest that's going to help you at all what happens is if you go lower than what's shown here you might start seeing the pixels that make up your image in the image will be known as well look like what's known as being pixelated you can see that it's made out of pixels you can see the j g's if you go higher than the highest range that's here usually doesn't help you and what happens is your files just bigger than you need so it takes longer to email it to somebody it takes more space on your hard drive than it was needed and any sharpening you apply to it is less effective and that's because the pixels that are in your image is so small you probably can't reproduce the fine detail on that kind of printing in any scharping you do is don it's such a small level that if you're pixels or too small the sharpening just doesn't have much effect so you want to stay usually within these ranges unless you have a good reason to deviate if you have a good reason deviate all you want so how did why now should I go for the low end? Are the high end well usually you go for the high end if you have anything that is anywhere close to text meaning crisp, crisp edge stuff in a photograph, things that would be similar would be straight lines that are really crisp. The mast of a sailboat being caught by the sun is usually going to be a really bright straight line with something darker around it, and that is where you might see the jag he's on the edge if you don't have a high enough a picture of a skyscraper with all its rectangular windows that's like really perfectly crisp straight lines if you're going to see jag ease, those are the kind of place is the guitar the guitar strings on it right where it goes across the I'm no way called the voice box or whatever that's where it goes across the dark shady area, the light might be catching guitar strings that's where it's almost getting to be like text word so crisp on the edge that you want to be on the higher range of of this to avoid jacqui's, you could be in the lower range if you have things like landscapes um actually going for the lower range can make your image look sharper it's a weird artificial kind of sharpening but that's the general range for skin tones I would tend towards the higher range because you don't want the artificial sharpening you get from a lower setting otherwise thie details and people skin like the wrinkles and imperfections will be exaggerated but those air the general range is if you have a good reason deviate go for it and deviate but if you have no idea what to use here's your guidelines and the one difference would be this is for photographs if it's text text is where you can see jacqui's and so for text you want to use a maximum setting usually of twelve hundred at twelve hundred wants to get above that it doesn't really help but otherwise you want to look at the resolution of your output device what premier you print now is that your desktop printer and if you use the same resolution is your printer you're just saying make the pixels of my image the same size that it can print this little dots and just don't need to go above twelve hundred so that's something that I doubt you're going toe remember in your head uh somewhere the handbook will be much more useful than just your memory uh and it's a lot of information when it comes to resolute I'm sure we have a lot of questions when it comes to resolution your brain might not be able to think of them right now because you know it's a little overwhelmed with details when it comes to resolution but why don't we see if we can come up with any for resolution think we can come up with some questions I think you could do a three day workshop on resolution sure and you've taken the, uh learn something new every day to an extreme I've never heard of s p I r l p I don't know about you guys that most people don't care those but just so you know, you might hear other terms being thrown around so when you have the image size dialogue books and you have re sample image on dh let's say you're using like ajay peg or something like that which doesn't have much data to start with when it's re sampling and you choose a bigger sizes it inventing data from yes, it is in men in data right? So if you want to see what it might do, I think I have a simple image I can use where is the one for filters somewhere in here I have not in here okay here's a simple image it's only three shades and it doesn't have very much in it, right? If I go over here and choose image size and I turn on re sample re sample means let me either add info to the imager throw away and I make this larger I'm going to say making an inch wide it's going to take something it used to be eight k and they could fifty two k source file size goes when I click ok, do you see what happened to that end? She gets softer, whereas before it had an absolutely crisp edge where that was like it's christmas or a razor edge there afterwards it softens it because it's going to invent some information and it needs to create that same transition over a wider space and it just doesn't know how to keep it as sharp as it could so she's going to look a little soft, but just so you know, just because something's a j peg does not mean that it has a small amount of information, I can take any picture, even a huge one the size of a poster and save it as a j peg it's just you're probably used to get them off the internet or email, so they happen to be small all right, and having a second question on canvas size and it gives the size in, say, inches of oven image is it making an assumption about already? Really I is it's going over here to image and image size and it's simply looking at what this number is and it's not going to change it because candace size could only add space or take away space, it can't change how big the pixels are, so I think in the original resolution from the original image it's just taken this resolution number and keeping it consistent it just can read it off your image so when it comes in here to canvas size it just says hey, if you end up with a certain number of pixels in here not really good a uh oh it's in relative that's like ok, if you have this number of pixels it's just going in looking at the resolution setting near five okay, so that if you set this over the inches it calculates what it is yeah, now you're getting into an area that I've always wondered about yeah when you have old photographs let's say you know, for inch by four inch really old obviously the resolution is not in those really old photographs so I've heard something termed ups a sampling yeah, is that the same thing that you're referring there on sampling? If I go to image size if this check boxes turned on and the number of you type in is larger than when you started with that means you are up sampling re sampling is just another word for that re sampling means changing the amount information we have you're just not saying if you're going up or down in size but what you're saying up sampling just means that check boxes on and we're increasing the size but what you're saying though when you do that it's just going to be a lot softer unit is going to be softer you're not gonna have the defined line I think that softer is better than the alternative which is if we don't have enough information it would instead look like this I would rather have a blurry looking x than a jagged looking x because if the pixels or too small you're going to see them you're going to see the jag ease and it's distracting you know this is a digital image where somebody did something wrong and that's what my brain says when I see it if I took that same image and I re sampled it up to the resolution I needed we wouldn't have amazing amount of detail in here it would look like a blurry acts but at least it wouldn't look like a digitized j g x does that make a sense also after you scale it up you can always apply sharpening if you sharpen the image it will bring back a little hint of that detail so you won't notice is much that it's soft but any time you bring it up against get softer okay yeah thank you sure all right then you ready for the war of questions? All right we'll start with the lane in oregon who asked what is the difference between changing the resolution and image size as opposed to change as opposed to changing in in the car workflow options and then also what is the difference between using the crop tool to resize an image as opposed to reducing the campus eyes ok first let's talk about the crop tool with the crop tool if as long as you haven't set um see if I still have that other image open no let me go open the other image all right as long as in the crop tool you leave the settings up here alone there's a way up here in the newest version of this program where you can set a size and resolution as long as you haven't type today that in instead this is just a default settings haven't typed anything and then using the crop tool to crop out information within your image or you can use the crop tool to pull it beyond the edge of your pick richard ad space is no difference at all then using canvas size only difference you could say is in canvas size or typing in numbers whereas here you're doing it visually so canvas size and crop tool exact same concept one is typing in numbers thie others doing it visually the other question was if I had an image and I made the change in camera so let's see if I can find a roth filed by chance what happens is with your camera your camera doesn't have a native resolution your camera just captures a certain amount of information in the width and height you've heard about megapixels before and you have a sixteen megapixel digital camera or you have a some other number megapixel digital camera that's trying to describe how much information is in your file how much information it captures so let's look at what that isthe here in camera at the bottom it will tell me how much information my camera captured. Do you see this number? That's the width see that number that's the height in pixels and next that tells me that's twenty one megapixels and you might think wow, it's somehow able to figure that out it's simple if I grab my white board well, here, I just do it down here. Listen, we got a calculator over there. You can't get calculators. I'm just going to take the wit sixty or fifty six sixteen multiplied by the height thirty seven forty for result is find out a second hold, please let me guess, I guess to make twenty one million wait a minute. Wait this want to see how good I am a married twenty one million way pretty good then zero, two, six, three hundred for three. Well, I just guesstimate that I wasn't that precise. You know how I guesstimating I looked at that number right there twenty one because that's all it's doing is this taking the width of your image in pixels, multiplying it by the height of your invention pixels insane, how many million is it he had a million pixels is megapixels what's that I said you had me at twenty one million you were like well, he's good now it's twenty one million pixels in general around that number off that's all this is doing right here when it tells you how many megapixels you have and so he say a sixteen megapixel camera it means whatever the width is and pixels multiply by whatever the height in is in pixels is about sixteen million and so you really need to look up the width and height and pixels and you can figure out how big you could print your images that kind of so anyway the question wass in camera what's the difference changing the setting here versus changing in image size because there you can change it to places here in camera at the bottom of my screen it is just a line of text right there and if I click on that text it will bring up a dialog box of studies and in here I have a resolution setting and that's because your digital camera doesn't have a resolution as faras that number goes all it has is a width and height notice how many megapixels it is and then right here you tell it how big would you want to print those so in here you want to type in for whatever kind of output device you use what number it likes remember that little table of numbers I had where you had a high range in a low range looking that table, figure out what would be appropriate for your use and type it in here, but whatever you type in, there is exactly the same as later on opening this picture, going to image size and just turn off free sample, say, use the same money info we started with just change how big the pixels are that's no different than typing in one sixty to begin with over in camera, as long as resembles turned off, you're taking the same amount of information and just saying, how big are the pixels? So the main thing is you might notice one day at on camera that you didn't realize that the number that was typed in after clicking on that little line of text wasn't what you needed. You've already opened the image and photo shop you've already performed, some retouching, that kind of thing, and then you realize, oh, man, that number wasn't to forty, which is what I might need. So you gotta image size and photoshopped u turn re sample off to say, I want to use the same money info, I just think change that setting type in what you need but it's no different than changing it here in camera. Also just so you know, if you want to scale an image when you're kamerad there's a setting here says size and if you click there you see some settings well, the one that doesn't have a plus or a minus sign next to it is the amount of information your camera delivers. This was shot on a twenty one megapixel camera that's what m p stands for and here says, hey, you want to scale it up here? We'll do it for you we're going to act like he had a twenty five megapixel camera scaling it up it's gonna look a little softer because it's in many information oroqen scale it down for you. There is a slight difference in quality doing it here than in photo shop but it's real slight question from la elite in india does reducing the image pixels make it sharper doesn't make it sharper? Not necessarily uh where does that make it even less sharp not doesn't make it less sharp. It just means that we're going to make it prints smaller or something like that but it's not going to dramatically change the sharpness of the image pretty much anytime I know you might logically think that if making it bigger makes its softer than making it smaller, does it make it sharper? No, I would say scale it down and if you need it sharper apply the sharpened filter great. And another sharpening questions from clinton team in new york when preparing an image for print do you actually sharpen more than usual? Ah, yeah for print uh, it depends on what kind of printing if you mean it printing press then yes, printing press is going to show you less detail when you see on screen and s o I would sharpen it so it looks sharper than I think it needs to be on screen because it's gonna look softer when it gets printed on a pretty press within in chat it's less so because within an inch etiquette define their reproduce such fine detail that you don't want to over sharpened rapid fire proof photographer would like to know why are so many raw images preset it? Two forty p p I and not three hundred peopie higher higher just because they needed a default setting to put in when they created photo shop in light room and they happen to have chose to forty in a lot of people don't even know the setting exists or have no idea what number to put in so they hope that it will be guessed right and so it's very common uh, yeah great. So a question from rob barons in reno and I had seen somebody else asked this too with the super fifteen in hk printers of today what happens when you send them higher resolution images than they can actually produce four hundred people six hundred p p I for large prince and somebody else had asked if you do do it in a higher resolution, does it matter? Does it make a difference? Is it a bad thing to d'oh? The only thing is you're sharpening any sharpening you apply to the image will be less effective because sharpening is usually one pixel on the edge of items it puts like a little halo around the edge to make it so the edges he's here to see if that pixel is so small that it can't be really reproduced on that printer, the sharp it he's not going to show up just a printer can't resolve something that interested, so usually you want to sharpen after you scale your image to the output size the size you needed, then the sharpening can be effective, but if you're not sharpening your images anyway wouldn't really matter would just take longer to print because you're sending your printer a lot more information than it needs, and it takes longer for it figure out how to print that out. Um but um yeah in general it's just going to make sharpening that's less effective and slower printing times thank you okay picks by shauna had asked, would you change the resolution to seventy two pp I to protect from having it stolen and printed without permission and then nubia had asked, is there an optimum maximum or minimum number of pixels per inch? Well, I already showed them maximum minimum remember the table of numbers yes, I would take him from there is a general range to use unless you have a good reason to deviate from those as far as bringing it down to seventy two if you have an image that started hi um if it started with this it like two forty or something and you had re sample turned on, you brought it down to seventy two that might make it smaller eso all you're saying is give them a smaller file but just the fact that the number is seventy two I can turn off free sample and bring that number down let's see if it can handle one that's the lowest you can get it for the most part you might be you go to a half pick lipsey point five I don't know if it'll take that no one wants the lowest I can go, but if free sample was turned off when you did it, you have the same amount of information in your file so they're still going to have a huge image it's the width and height and pixels that defines how much information you have, so if you want to make sure they can't print it very well just don't give him a very big image, meaning the width and height and pixels make it so it's not a big number, and but the resolution setting attached on matter it doesn't describe how much information we have unless you include with in height in inches. If you said I have an eight by ten, should I give them to him? It's seventy two pixels french then yeah, that'd be low resolution, they wouldn't be able to print it very well, but if unless you're describing the same eight by ten at three hundred pixels per inch, then that would be high resolution, they'd be able to print it easily, but just the number itself. If you're not thinking about the same with in height, if you go in here and just every sample turned off suddenly, this image is eight hundred sixty three inches wide it's one thousand eighty inches tall, the pixels or just massive. Uh but that number all by itself doesn't tell me much. Yes, with and hiding in inches and then resolution if you told me both of those. So any time you're telling me resolution, tell me within height in inches, too, so you cannot say that the optimal minimum is seventy two and the optimal maximus three, sixty well, I can say for printing for printing that table of numbers I gave you you could do so many this number would make it so these pixels would be an inch mine in she wouldn't look good and I need to have it at a setting let's say it was to forty that was needed but just saying to forty doesn't tell me how big the picture is is it an inch? Is it one hundred inches? I don't know give me one hundred inch wide file with that number that's pretty low and I could just scale it down in page layout program printed just fine or I can come in here and turn off the sample image change the number and I could make it print just fine s o the main thing I'm saying is any time you ever mention resolution three hundred pp I really like that also tell people how big you need it I need an eight by ten at three hundred if you just say three hundred I don't know what size picture they're going to get me they could give me one a centimeter wide and then it might not be enough so it was actually related to what you just the dialogue bark you just had up from shade k going I've heard that when you re sample and image to a different size you should do it at ten percent at a time does this relate to resolution in anyway and do you is that it just relates how much information you have and what they're saying is if I want to scale this image up let's just say that it wasn't enough right now this image I need this resolution that's what my printer requires let's say but I need the image to be bigger than these dimensions in order to do that if I need this amount per inch and I need just more inches, I'm gonna have to try and re sample in scaler up I needed to be fifty inches wide from making a huge poster and what they're saying is instead of just typing in what I want as men result they had heard if you scale up at ten percent of the time and then just repeat that over and over until you get to the size you want that that would be a good thing in general a doping noticed that people were doing that to try to gain additional quality and they decided that that sounded kind of clunky and kind of stone age ish to have to go up ten percent increments to get higher quality because it was true a while ago. So what they did is down here at the bottom of the image size dialog box is a pop up menu right here in this says what kind of math should be used to scale up or down your image and it uses some stupid technical terms but uh in older versions of federer shop like quite a few versions ago, the default setting was this thing called by cubic and if that's the setting you had it set to going up in ten percent increments would give you higher quality than just going up all in one burst but that's why they invented these other choices that air here and they added this one which is better for enlargement they had this one which is better for reduction, and they made this the default setting which automatically chooses between the two depending on if you're going up or down. So if you just leave this on the default setting of by cubic automatic and just say I don't care about that setting, I just know that now they've made it so it's good, you know it automatically has some intelligence in it there's no need to go up ten percent increments if you save inequality at all. It's not great enough for the labor involved and going up in ten percent increments and it's the whole reason why they change this menu to have more choices in it and put the default at one that would give you quality that is ninety eight point six percent as good is going up in ten percent increments that makes sense, so in general I wouldn't go up in ten percent increment and if you hear anybody saying that usually they're quoting stuff from old versions of photo shop and they just weren't aware that a change has been made where that technique is no longer necessary. Okay? All right, so let's let's get away from that a little bit and look at other things that we might need to deal with when you create a brand new document I just went to the file menu choose new you get this there's a lot of settings in there. If I'm going to prince my image, I would have this in here set two inches and I would type in the size that I need for my new document I'm going to print this is eight and a half by eleven because that's sheeted paper I'm using what I'm gonna print here we have resolution I would look up on that table of numbers that I showed you earlier that had the range of numbers and I would type in something within that range if I'm going to make something that's gonna have really crisp lines that's more like text dish, I would go for the higher range of that. Um let's just say I've found a number typed it in if you're going to send this off to be printed on a printing press and you're putting all the way out to the edge of the sheet of paper make these numbers just the littlest bit higher than you need it's what's known as bleed when you print all the way to the edge of a sheet of paper on a printing press not on other kinds of party but on uprooting press they actually use a larger sheet of paper than what you asked for. They print beyond the edge of the sheet and then they trim it later to get you the exact size you want because the printing press isn't capable of going up to the edge you're not going beyond so they use a larger sheet. So if you're going to promote a printing press, you bring this up a little bit extra. The extra amount is not critical as far as how big it is as long as it's a little bit extra quarter inch be fine so that's one thing to think about but then down here we have some other settings to consider one of those is this one how many bits do you have? One bit is not common one bit is solid black and solid white that text you could use for that solid black text on a solid white background that be fine um but then you have the choice of eight sixteen and thirty two what the heck does that mean? Well, that means how much information it can have in your picture pretty much the darkest you can have an image is black the brightest you can have in an image is white and how many shades can you have in between? That eight bit means two hundred fifty six brightness levels just think of it is two hundred fifty close enough means two hundred fifty brightness levels between black and white that's enough to have everything looked really nice and smooth to have it print nice and smooth toe haven't looked normal and have a file size that is manageable if you bring it up to sixteen bit you will have thousands upon thousands upon thousands of brightness levels in your picture each time this number goes up by one you double the amount you can have so that means nine bit would be instead of two hundred fifty two b five hundred shades ten bits that of five hundred shades would be a thousand shares each time you go buy one you double the amount you could have so going to sixteen bit would allow you to have a lot more shades in your picture in thirty two would be ridiculously higher than that almost beyond imagination but sometimes people need to choose between this I will it's the just as a generic setting for ninety eight percent of people on earth a pit you will hear people talk about sixteen when they do ask them for proof visual proof that you can confirm with your eyes I'll guarantee you that ninety eight percent of the people that ever mentioned sixteen bit will not be able to show you a visible difference between two pictures one that was created in a pit and one that was created or adjusted in sixteen I will show you a difference on my screen so you can see what it looks like and I'll tell you, win, I might bring that up to sixteen and just so you know, I'm not trying to talk you out of use in sixteen if you're used to using it, go for it, but your file sizes are twice as big also, if he had layers there gm medic strictly bigger there ten, twelve times bigger maybe so you have to decide is that really worth it? So for most folks eight bit perfectly fine in for some sixteen on occasion let's look at I just want to show you a visual example show you two of them were the original image is the middle of this seen the time that you're going to really notice the difference between eight and sixteen bit is when you apply an adjustment to your image, if you try to apply an extreme adjustment to your image, you might be able to see a difference what I did in this case is I took the middle photograph, which is in general silhouette taken at sunset and I said let's, bring out as much shattered details we possibly could out of that playing to see what's in there in the result is what you see surrounding it. One of the two surrounding images was eight bit the other was sixteen from this distance in viewing it, I can't see the difference, but if I zoom up, I can see a difference. Let me see if I can show you I'm not sure he'll be able to on screen because the file got corrupted. This image here usually would look sharper when I zoom up, going to be more information, but unfortunately the files corrupts I can't open it, but looking here and just looked at it looks a little soft, but it looks fine then look at this one and see if you can see what's going on there now you can't quite see it, but in here, usually this would look rather you could call picks lay, but what it's called is posterized post arises where you should have a smooth change from one town to the next, but instead you see stair stepping, you see an abrupt change. So here is a panorama that I stitched this was maybe one, two through about five or six shots the time that you're going to notice the difference between eight and sixteen bit is when you have a transition from one color to another that happens over of a smooth area not detailed but smooth like a sky and it happens over really wide distance so here I have this orangish of the sun going to this dark gray over here and it happens over really wide distance. Well, that's when you have the potential of seeing a difference between eight and sixteen bit those that these air the two instances a smooth changeover really, really wind with the second one would be an extreme adjustment extreme adjustment would mean pulling out all the detail that you can see in here and making it look like daylight right there that would be an example of an extreme one. Let me just show you the difference that will get two years so I'm gonna zoom up on this and this was stitched from sixteen bit originals in this transition and here looks like it should here's what it looked like when I stitched eight bit if you can see I know how well it's going to go out on the video feed but in here I can see some lines that are vertical almost kind of curved we'll see if I can exaggerate them for you by brightening this image up a bit can you see like a line right about there is that visible? If I show you the image underneath, it looks smooth but that's it's known as poster ization it's where something should be a smooth grady int from one color to another and instead of look stair stepped that's what sixteen bit mode is in general designed to prevent and if you have a smooth radiant going over really wide distance you know that's going to be in your picture sixteen bit might help you if you notice it being banded like that it might have been better if you had a sixteen bit file um it would look nice and smooth whereas an eight bit one might look like that now that sixteen bits of information though is really only going to help you out at the time you apply an adjustment once you're done with the adjustment if you take the adjustment and permanently apply it to the image so there's no layer is there anything you've heard him together after that you can usually convert him date but they look fine for instance this image I've discovered here mode a pit this guy's not going to suddenly look banding here's the ape it version originally sixteen and if you see them but it was at the time that the panorama was stitched they process of stitching the panorama is win the sixteen bit was useful after that I could convert it to eight bit and it was fine eso it's the moment you're making the adjustment the moment you're stitching the panorama that the sixteen bits can be useful after that on most images you can convert to eight and you'd be fine so you had a question and I know this gets confusing and technical but you know, so basically you're saying before any adjustments if you have a photo such as that that has such an incredible spence of gradation yeah then it's useful to be at a higher bit yeah, but then you're saying when you flatten the image it'll maintain them well, what I would say is no, not always what I would say is if the main thing you're doing if the time that the sixteen bits is useful is when you're adjusting the picture er or when you're stitching a panorama that's when the process of stitching or the process of adjusting benefited and after that you can convert it to eight but with an image like this or with an another image we have a really wide expanse of a really smooth transition you might want to stay in sixteen to stay to stay safe there, make sure you have as many shades and there is you could to keep it smooth so it's early applicability to fine gradations yeah fine gradations or extreme adjustments if I want to put make this look like daylight over here sixteen bits would help but for most people for ninety eight percent of the images they use it wouldn't be of benefit and generally would notice no difference and it's going to double your file size if you have no layers and if you start adding layers it's going to be even more extreme of a file size difference? So in general I would suggest that most people use eight bit in on lee if they notice a an issue, might you want to try again with sixteen bit to see if it would help to say no? Your camera delivers more than eight bit captures more so when you're opening an image and came a wrong at the bottom of the dialogue, you can choose that same little line of text you click on, you can choose this setting and so that's where you can determinant, you'll notice if you look at the specs for your camera, it won't say it's sixteen bit it'll have some other number twelve or something like that will be below sixteen, but these were just the only options we have for our documents it's like saying, I'm going to buy a parking garage that has twelve spaces even though only have eight cars the only combined them though in certain increments of size and that's what we have here is certain settings available even though our file might not contain that much info it just means we have a container big enough to hold sixteen our camera only delivered twelve if that makes any sense, but let me just mention one nothing which is when you're making a new one I mentioned within high doing in inches if it's for print you can do pixels if you want for screen because this number isn't used for that eight or sixteen eight for most things sixteen if you have over really wide range you're going to put a grady in't um then color mode rgb for on screen use like internet email or desktop printers jack c m y que for printing press and you don't have to do seem like a from the beginning if you don't want to you could at the very end go up to the image menu you can change the mode you know image mode and switch the main thing is before you send something to a printing press somebody either you or the printing company needs tio convert that image to seem like a mode before it could be printed on a printing press but rgb for onscreen use in for desktop printers uh for most service bureaus you're going to send out your photo be printed our gbs fine seemed like case pretty press if you just want to know the other one's in here bit map means solid black and solid white if all you had was your scans signature you're just going to use that don't need any shades of gray on the edge of it to make it look a little smoother anything that's a bit map is grayscale is, if you want a black and white photo and you want file size to be smaller, you know, needed to be. Have any hint of color in it. In lab motives for color geeks, you don't need it.