Technique: Emphasize Similarities
this case is the first technique that I'd like t like tow you to become familiar with. And this is what I refer to as amplifier air, inverse izing similarities. So we have emphasizing similarities and also minimizing differences. And this is where we really going to start on, start and jump into the language. We can really now take our first step in learning the language on. As I said, It's a general general course, so we can't learn every single language. But I would like to learn something for you to learn something. Name sure that it's probably not something that you've learned so far. But what do I mean by this? So we need to emphasize the similarities between our language or our languages that we speak on the language that we're learning. So if I say this in an easy way, it's to focus on similarities or easy things on what do I mean by easy things? I mean things that are familiar to us, be it the sound, the appearance, the structure is something that we can understand and it gives...
us feedback. It makes us aware that we're able to understand in the case of difficult defeat chiller where we can and see that it has to be that in English, and it helps us to motivate ourselves and encourages us to go on to do more because we're aware actively or passively off. We understand what is being said and to finish off on this part. Then most didn't become a genius in one day he pursued. He carried on with the activities. Andi, it's not, as I said, it's not about learning something completely in one day or one week, it will take time. But we can take as much time as we want dependent on our goal. And we can really effectively learn so much in this time and so much that you'll be blown away by. I genuinely believe that now this leads on to the first slide that I'm talking about. So my pennies in my hand or is it? Well, I have a pen in my hand, but what does this mean? So would you say it's a standard English sentence? Yeah, I mean, it's English. Well, actually, what if I were to tell you that it's actually written in a language, so it's written in another language called Afrikaans. Afrikaans is a language related to Dutch, and he's spoken in South Africa and Namibia on enough. Nikon's you say may pain. It's in May hunt exactly the same. And it means, funnily enough, exactly the same. My is May is pronounced. The difference is slightly different. The wise pronounces a sound. This is Ping and May hunt, and it's exactly the same now. This is great because we understand already a first sentence in a language that we don't speak, and it's exactly the same. Now what if I were to go on and tell you that if you learn a Germanic language, the chances are you going to understand the very, very basic vocabulary? And the best thing is, I think estimates suggest that 85% of vocabulary general vocabulary using English goes back toe old English, which is still very much related to other Germanic languages. That means that the languages the words that were using in English and every day, the most common words 85 I think 85% of them come from old English. Andi, these air therefore related to every other Germanic language. So if you look at take with the word apple. So apple in Dutch and Afrikaans is apple pronounce a bit different but apple. And then here we have apple, which is low low Saxon up food in German, Epley, Icelandic on a play which is, Ah, Swedish. And then the same goes for hand for finger, for house and for work that we can see that these are words that in this case, for example, may be here. We might. We're not really sure we might think off, where's that? But if we think about it in a sentence, where we we know that we talked thesis, what is being referred to, then we most logically going to come up with suggestions or the reasoning behind it, that it has to be hand. I mean in the other cases, and this is e apart from the capital letter because all now in German are in low. Saxon are capitalized. Then apart from that is exactly the same as in English exactly the same and the same for Swedish as well. Here we have a few differences in vowels, but it's still exactly the same. So House House, it sounds more or less the same. It's just pronounce a bit differently now. The great thing is, is if we analyze this in English. These are just a few words that we use in English that are not English. Piano, pizza, Corey Government umbrella, bungalow, vodka. As I said, the list is insanely large, and these are all words. All words that do not come from originally come from English, their words that we've adopted into our language and we use in a row on a regular basis, be it in different ways for food, for drink, living situations, politics, the basic basic vocabulary. A times car, coffee. They're all from different languages. They're not essentially English words on bond, so it doesn't only apply to languages that in the English is immediately related to, in this case, Germanic languages. And the beauty of knowing English is essentially that. Such a large percentage of our own vocabulary comes from other languages, so we have the common ones that come from Germanic on other more, say, refined what Ella eloquent, not necessarily eloquent, because that would suggest that old English wasn't but say maybe more intense words, independence, more complex terms. They generally calm from languages that aren't English so latin or Greek. And we already know these than in other languages because they're more or less the same. The chances are that they're going to be very, very, very much the same. So in this case, are we ready for our first major exercise? Yes, we are. So this gives your first language exercise Well, first full on language exercise with no knowledge of dodge. I would like you to, if possible, and you'll find it on page eight off the language workbook. I would like you to, if possible. And don't feel bad if you're not able to it to translate to other things that you don't understand. I would like you to translate the following text from Dutch to English. And they've also added a German version for you to use as another tool just in case you have difficulties. Uh, so remember here that the main aim is to pick up on similarities to English. What looks a militar English? What do we think? Looks similar to English, But don't forget. We need to think logically here. We need to put this language the context of the language into place, and by logical I mean were able to deduce information on the meaning of something simply because of the context in which it's embedded. So I'll give you a few minutes. Teoh briefly. Go through this. We'll have a look at some of the words in the article. In the small article, it's about not sure alterations exactly what it's about, what they think you'll be able to get the gist on DA. It's just a few sentences in in a Language in Dutch. In this case, we have a German translation on duh. We can also see the similarities between the two that they are essentially very, very similar, that they're also, in certain cases, similar to each other than the art English. But, um, we've already seen one case already with German, so we're we can say we're acquainted with the language already on Duh. This is really, as I said, an exercise to show how how easy I don't mean by easy that it's that it's easy peasy. It's something that I could do with my eyes closed, not at all, but it's how how we understand much more by simply focusing on what we're familiar with, what looks like something that we've seen before. What could sound like something that we've seen before? So even if we see words here that don't necessarily look like English, maybe they would sound like we had the example of a house in English, which in in Dutch and Afrikaans his house Is this our sound? And we virtually have the same in English. We have this how on, um, which, like, in mouse. But we also in English, unfortunately, have many of the ways of writing words that don't We don't write the way they yet. You don't right the way we speak. Because there's not just one way of saying out because I would be could be Oh, cow, no cow like that and in Dutch use pronounce you spell how as you I all the time. So how have you found the translation? Did you feel intimidated by it? Because village, you look like you could see you right away. And you were like, this is my take. Have a few blanks, but okay, Last Brilliant. Because that's the idea. The idea is obviously there are some words, and we're gonna look at ones that we're not. We're unsure up so we're that we're completely sure off. And I know that's what they could be if we'd not sure what they were. We've leftovers. Blanks I am. Would you maybe like toe give me the first sentence? Belgian is a Western West European land in Europe. You're that close. Correct is actually perfect. And it sounds a bit like ingenuity. Dapo come up would like repetitive West European land in Europe. Actively, that's what it says. I put that there on purpose to show that because sometimes on the the Proposition two different and in this case is in Europe in Oval Park in l dopa on is exactly the same in English. And we see here, we hear is capitalized on here. It isn't this the now that's capitalized in German, and these are things that we can pick up on these things that we can learn. These are things that aren't difficult. They take may be time to get used to, But it's the same with English that you realize that you only capitalize names of places. I mean I mean, in Dutch, for example, you don't capitalize, announce in German you do. But the emphasis on here is understanding that, and as you said correctly, is Belgium. So Belgium is because it could have been belled you and it could have been something completely different. But what do we know about general general geography? That it must be a Western European? And you said Land and Islam. So we have, in other words, about English, obviously country and country maybe sounds a bit. This may be the word that, but there's no reason why in other Germanic languages they simply have one word for is just Lund Lund Bland inning in German on As we see, it's virtually 1 to 1, exactly the same. And then we have the second sentence. Would anyone like toe read the second sentence, or at least Ah, tell me what they think it means? No idea exactly. So it's a federal state like the United States. You mean that was a state that's come, come made up of different different areas, different states, different provinces, and in this case, there are three different main areas, and then we have. So it's exactly the same. Innings is a federal state, and in here we have a on line in a non nine, literally mean, Does anyone can anyone guess in English? A. So it is a or it could be a nun. Exactly. Correct. But there's another word. But he's also means in English. Unfortunately, no, it's someone. So if you look at the look quite similar, right? In this case you're right. You're completely razed. Is we in English? We we talk our estate. We don't talk about one state. But here it's one that sorry in here is a But it can also mean one. And another language is about like in Spanish. You have, like the indefinite article on is all. Oh, no, no, no. And it also means one. So, kiddo, not fed weather. I want a beer, one beer, and it's exactly the same. In this case, they don't differentiate between our on Dwyane. It's just one word. And then we have the next sentence, which is you know, the hopes that headland is also and you guesses yet Laura, uh, the land or country is perfect. Well done. Hail Holt. Well, well done. And was there a word here that we thought was tricky? A bit complicated. Exactly. How does anyone can anyone guess what it means? literally. So it's get consists of two concepts you've got hold and start and in German helped unhedged at which put together is a compound. Now we'll look at these later. Good guess, but unfortunately not correct, because his state start and start, and it becomes start than stat since a slight difference. But if we think about it. So we said the capital of the country or the land is Brussels. What is the capital? The head had not this day. So if what's Washington, D. C. The capital base? In this case, it's not. But in many cases it's the main city. It's the main city because usually tradition in the capital was the biggest, most elaborate grand place that we had. So in this case it literally means head or main city. And they're in German and Dutch. We use a really simple compound down to say the, um, the capital of the country is Brussels on. The last sentence is and is to finish off. And this is where we also finish up with our part of the lesson we would like to attempt at the last one will. Oh, so you're raising him in Belgium people speak two of three languages? Yes, Dutch French. Perfect. Well done. So I think I think there's one thing you said I'd like to pick up in this, he said to two years, two centuries corrected. What? What was the word after two off? Okay, so it's It's quite sneaky because off doesn't mean off in Germany's order. Or exactly. So it's to our to So Belgium's are the Belgian people speak two or three languages, dollar and Moroccan. Sharon in German looks much limit much, much more like speech to speak and dollar is and is the exact the same language. It's the same word for language. And if we think about what we have in English, we have the word language, which is much, much similar to romance languages in French. Long, long gouge, lingua in Portuguese linguist we already saw, and obviously, what can it be? So we have Dutch, which, funnily enough, I'm not. You don't If you know this that Dutch, when is the case of pennsylvania dot that actually the German they were German and they heard there were deutsche, which is the German word for German, and they change it to dot so, actually, what we say Dr used to mean German speakers. But hundreds of years ago, the differences between doctor and German were as diverse as they are now. And then it has to be Franz fun service and doubts. And they have again doubts this you I and that's deutsche in German on duh. Which is effectively Dutch. Funny enough, French and German. So you've understood your first article, which could appear this could be appear in an encyclopedia it could appear on in the newspaper. It could. It appears a fact file. You're going on, you're going toe. You want to go to Belgium and you have a the trouble guide. And that's the first information you receive. Chan yet? Yeah, that related the talent. And in this case, I don't think it is. It would be. I mean, it's the next way. This is a great way. Actually, we'll be looking at this later, associating words. So if you find it easier to if you think of dollar and seat Arlen Atala, sometimes they don't pronounce the end. But here you can think of that. You can think OK, speaking in languages, a talent so I can say the Belgians have two or three talent and the third talents of their language, so that's a very, very important aspect. There was great, you said that.