Aperture: Quality of Light & Depth of Field
Moving on to a bitter if we come back teo our eyes and comparing them to a camera what part of her eyes do you think we'd be like the aperture the aperture controls the quantity of light that's allowed to enter into the camera or into our retinas anybody microphone pupil that's right ok, so what happens when you are in a really dark room what your people do they dilate right so they can let in more light so you can see better and then if you flip the light on suddenly your pupils constrict right? Because oh, my gosh light bright light bright right like gremlins I'm not the only person who remembers that baby right? Okay, yeah. So your pupils goingto dilate or constrict and you can actually see this happen if you go like sand in the bathroom with the lights off and let your eyes just for a minute and then flip the life on and look in the mirror and you'll see your people go I kind of need so that their apertura does it controls how much light is allowed to come through the lens um or no...
t and it is actually a function of your lens so that means that if I take this lens off my camera and put a different lens on the other lens whatever I put on here may have different aperture capabilities than this lens that makes sense so it's not built into the camera the way the shutter speed is it's built into your lens so if you can change your lenses your aperture possibilities will also potentially change if you have a point to then it's built in because it's all it's all all in one so that's sometimes even easier so let's talk about this your aperture then can range from being what we would call wide open something like this and it's actually built of like little little blades that swirl open or swirl shut so something like this that's my depiction so we have a wide open and then on the other end of the spectrum we have nearly closed so just really like a little pin hole like you might find on an oatmeal box camera if you ever made a pinhole camera all right? And then of course we have all kinds of things in between we have more than what I'm showing you here. This is just for purely illustration purposes in fact you would have something along these lines and and actually again more than what I'm showing you here but on one end of the spectrum we would have a wide open aperture and then all the way across it would be quite narrow and they have different effects on our images ah wider aperture is goingto let in more light and it has the effect of reducing our depth of field or here I wrote depth of focus just you know if this is new to you maybe that helps you understand a little better if we call it depth of focus so a shallow depth of focus is going to give you a blurry background and a blurry four grams so wherever your subject is that you focused on as as objects in your scene get further away from your subject they're going to become blurry on the other end of the spectrum when you shoot with a narrower aperture your your field of focus gets deeper so that's often used like in landscape photography when you want a deep range of focus where as the wider apertures would be used more often in portrait photography for example amateurs are also fractions we call them f stop so f stops our ways of measuring light so if you think about when you bake a cake and you measure sugar by the cup or the half cup or whatever in in photography we measure light instead of cups full of light we call them f stops so we have f stops of light and they are fractions so for example we have f over two point eight we would call that f two pointed I'm an f two point eight right or I'm going to shoot it as eleven or whatever so though they're called f stops and they are our aperture settings and what kind of mind warby is that the smaller numbers like two point eight it's actually a wider opening then for example f sixteen isa squinty little opening so to help you remember that you want to keep in mind that these are fractions and if we were talking about pizza, what is it with me and food cake pizza? I don't know if we were talking about pizza and I was like, hey, would you like one fourth of the pizza or we do like one sixteenth of the pizza, which one would give you a bigger slice the fourth right? So just keep that in mind when you're thinking about these well, what what was that when we're thinking about these numbers? Keep that in mind so that you can easily work out that f two point eight is a wider opening, then f sixteen okay, um and then when you're like, oh, which one made the blurry backgrounds and which one didn't, um, the wider apertures air going to make that blurrier background and here's my trick for helping you remember that I don't know if this is scientifically accurate, but I'm going to go with it when you're driving down the highway, for example, and you're trying to read the sign in the distance it's pretty far away, what do you tend to do with your eyes to try teo focus see that line you squint right like oh let me just any turn down the radio because goodness knows that help turned on the radio and this squint and suddenly you can rethink way squint when we're trying to see things that are far away and I don't know how that's related but I'm going to just say that it is because it makes sense in a way sort of so the squint ear the tinier that that aperture is the deeper you can focus within the deeper your range of focus within your scene so let's look at some examples because that helps so here's my q t little boy he's in everything now sorry I can't help it he's around when I'm creating the material so he gets pulled into stuff okay so yeah so cute so this was captured and I don't remember what some after would you say this was captured with a wide apertura narrow aperture right? We know that it was captured with the wide aperture because we see this deliciously blurry background and um this deliciously blurring foreground so my focus was on him when I was doing this and then anything in front of him or anything behind him becomes progressively more blurred and that's because I shot it with a wide aperture now here is the same scene with a squint here aperture I think this was like f twenty two or something so now we can see all of these plants and the plants back here so that's how that works? Okay, here's another example when I shoot wedding ring than such for my wedding clients, I tend to shoot them with a macro lens and a very well, relatively wide open bitter and it creates an effect where the front of the rings like the stone and the prongs hold it in place are in focus. And then even if you look on her ring over here, the diamonds actually become blurred because there falling away from the camera and if you can, if this comes across on the monitor, you can actually see a strip here. I think I probably shot this on a tablecloth or a napkin or something. It's got a bit of a texture you can actually see a little strip I mean it's a narrow actually have it highlighted in this next frame. Thankyou for kino that's so helpful so actually there's just little strip of focus that runs across the frame. So anything in front of that strip or anything behind it would be blurred and your amateur basically controls how wide that strip is, right so it's like also if you were taking a group photo let's, say at a wedding and you're shooting, you know the whole wedding party let's say they're somehow five rows deep would you want a wider aperture or ah, squinty er aperture to make sure that your front row and your fifth row were still in focus. Squinty, right? Because that's a pretty deep range to get all and focused, you'd wantto squint that aperture down toe widen that field of focus. Hopefully, this is thinking in yes. Okay, so now we go back to the camera. How do you control all of this stuff again? It's going to very model by model, but for example, on my camera, I have this dial right here. This controls my aperture. So this controls the shutter speed. This one let me change my aperture. I can see what my settings are on my display up here again. It's not going to say probably. I mean, it varies by manufacturer, but it will probably not say four it might mine just says for four point oh, or whatever. So you have to kind of get familiar with your camera. You'll also see that, of course, when you look through the screen, if you have a dslr, a different model of dslr, sometimes you don't have that dial back here. So what you would d'oh in most cases is you'll have a button, it says a v and have a little plus minus if you press and hold that button and then spin, you're the same diallo you used to control your shutter speed, it will magically now control your aperture so you just hold that button down and then spend that dial and it will control your aperture and again on the point shoots. They're all different, but on the ones that I've worked with there's a ring around the lens in the front and that's how it was on my old film camera. You control the appetizer by spinning this ring around your lens, so it kind of fun to see that on a digital camera, too. So that's how it works on on point shoot sometimes. So when in doubt, check your manual because who knows what the camera manufacturers do, but that's generally how it works and what you're looking for. So, again, folks at home figure out where your appetite control is, and then just spin it around to see what your options are that's again getting very depending on the lens that you have. So just see how why do you can go and see how squinty you can go just so you know what you're working with?