Lens Accessories: Filters
All right so this whole section is on lenz accessories or lends bling if you prefer that and so there's a lot of different things that we can use to maximize and accessorize our lenses to get the most out of them and that is all in this category here so what we're going to be talking about are not really that many different things just a few basic items filters hoods tripod mounts extension tube's and extender so let's go ahead and get started with filters so most all lenses are going to have filter thread so that you can screw in an accessory filter either for protection or for doing some sort of technical aspect to your photography there are a variety of sizes and sometimes cannon and other manufacturers tend to make lenses of certain sizes that are more common than others for instance ah lot of the pro lenses are seventy seven millimeters in size and it's very convenient when all of your lenses have the same filter size and it's not a reason that I would buy a lands oh it's got the ...
same filter sizes my other lands but it's a consideration knowing okay well this is a different filter size so I'm going to need to buy a new polarizing filter and so it's just something to be aware of it's as I say it's not a reason why you're going to buy or not buy a particular lance there are a small group of lenses that are typically in the very wide angle range that are sold, bulbous and sticking out in the front, that you cannot put filters on the front of them, at least not any sort of standard filters. There are sometimes aftermarket cos that will make special devices that will fit in front of a lens. But those air very unusual. You cannot screw filters in to these four lenses from canada. Some of these lenses will have an option for putting in a rear gelatin filter which is a plastic filter and so this was more useful in the days of film when when they were using a color filter in there to change the color of the light for different types of light sources that you were working it's still in there and it's possible that you could put a piece of neutral density film in there if you need it too dark and the light coming through your lands optically though this is not the best way to work with filters on the lens but with these white angles there really is no other option and the reason that it's hard is that it's not big enough for a piece of glass and so it's just a very thin piece of it's almost like paper it's a cellophane type material and so it's an option on some of the wide angle lenses that is out there on some of the bigger lenses the front opening is so large a giant uv or polarizing filter would be very, very expensive and so they have drop in filters and you can buy these smaller droppin filters and put him in this little drawer system on the back of the lands. And this is something that you're going to find on the big white lenses two hundred up to eight hundred millimeters and so that's an easier way to deal with filtration on those type of lenses for all the other lenses in between you're going to have options of different types of filters and I'm just going to talk about a few of the most popular types of filters the first off is the uv filter and so this is a protection filter for the front of the lens. Technically the uv part is that it is filtering out some of the uv light and that is light that we don't necessarily see with our own eyes but our cameras are picking up and this is allowing the the filter to block those sorts of lights so that the light that we record in our camera is a little bit more similar to our own eyes. It could cut out some of the haze but for the most part it's imperceptible and the reason it's being used is for protection on the front of the lens it's a bit of an insurance policy some people like using that some people don't like using it and I'm going to discuss this a little bit further in the lens maintenance section when I talk about protecting lenses with hoods and caps and filters and so this is a discussion that we will continue later on in the class one of the most useful filters that you can use is thie polarizing filter it's this very dark filter and it impacts the light that is coming in your lands in an unusual way. There's many people who have polarised sunglasses and if you tilt your head from side to side you'll notice how it changes the reflections and what it's doing is it is letting through some types of light and blocking other types of light depending on the wavelength and the direction of the light so this filter unlike other filters that you just screw on and you leave nice and tight on the front of your lens this one has a rotating collar that you're able to get out there with your fingers and turn it and see the adjustment that's being made in fact you don't even need to put this on your camera you could just pick the filter up and look through it and see if it has an impact in the environment that you are currently in sometimes when you use this filter you will see nothing happening it depends on the light source in the direction that you are facing so back here at horseshoe bend we've seen a number of photos from here let's take a polarizer and move it in position to its maximizing polarizing notice what happens to the water down below? We'll go back and forth a couple times minimum polarizing we're getting a lot of reflections of the sky and the clouds in the water question is which do you prefer which do you like? There isn't a correct answer it's just a matter of where you want it to be this adds a little bit more contrast having that really dark water allows us to see in the water a little bit more clearly another example that I found that really showcases how well you can see into the water with this so what do you see in the water here and let's turn the maximum polarising effect on and now we can see those fish under the water surface much more clearly let's go back to minimum now we're seeing the reflections of the trees on the other side of the lake and go back to maximum and so if you're shooting in water or through glass or any sort of subject that has a lot of reflections on it that's where a polarizer can be very handy so if you're gonna be out doing whale watching on about a polarizer is something I would definitely want to bring along but because it handles reflections it's also good in many areas and so this was a short video clip and you can see as I'm shooting these tulips we saw this still photograph earlier in the class how much turning that polarizer affects the light reflecting off of the side of these tulips and it really increases the contrast of these and increases the saturation which I think improves the photo in the amazon this giant leaf is reflecting a lot of white light from the canopy above turn on the polarizer and we're seeing maur the true natural green of that leaf, so can be very impactful, even in the forest. Another example. Without and let's, add the polarizer to it. A huge difference in the saturation that we're seeing an area where it has a big impact is on blue sky. So this is a short video clip. And as I turned the polarizer, notice what happens to the sky. There we go, nice dark blue noticed the saturation in the colors of the columns, they get more saturated, and so this is something that you will see right in the viewfinder. While you are turning the polarizer, it also can have the effect of reducing the amount of haze. Look how much easier mount rainier can be seen by turning this into a maximum polarizing effect. Now the areas in which this is going to work are areas in which the sun is ninety degrees to your right or left, so you'll notice the light on mount rainier it's lighter. On the right hand side. This is a side lighting situation, so any time you have light coming from the side, it could be from the left side or the right side. It doesn't matter that's when you're going to get the strongest effect with a polarizer. 00:07:40.38 --> 00:07:43. And this has a very strong effect on that blue sky, 00:07:43.68 --> 00:07:46. but it doesn't have that much effect on the wheel 00:07:46.19 --> 00:07:49. itself, and so it could be very, very helpful filter 00:07:49.84 --> 00:07:52. for travel landscape in a lot of general outdoor photography. 00:07:53.82 --> 00:07:56. And so sometimes you're photographing in the sky just 00:07:56.81 --> 00:08:00. has no color to it, and the polarizer will help bring 00:08:00.42 --> 00:08:04. that color out very, very helpful. I tend to be a 00:08:04.58 --> 00:08:06. little bit obsessed about shooting pictures within 00:08:06.74 --> 00:08:08. without I've been teaching classes, and so I have 00:08:09.05 --> 00:08:11. tons of examples. What does it look with a polarizer 00:08:11.83 --> 00:08:13. and without and every time I find a good example, 00:08:13.85 --> 00:08:16. I need to do this and I think it's helpful to do this 00:08:16.66 --> 00:08:20. just to restate to yourself how important this is. 00:08:20.9 --> 00:08:24. This is one of the most dramatic times where no polarizer 00:08:25.29 --> 00:08:27. look. What it looks like with the polarized isn't 00:08:27.03 --> 00:08:31. no photoshopping stuff. This is just using a polarizer 00:08:31.11 --> 00:08:32. right where it has its greatest impact. As I say, I tend to get obsessed with shooting more and more photos of these. And so you get these really saturated nice colors. And a lot of times, you look with your own eyes, and you see this nice blue sky. But you hold your camera up, and you're just kind of like this just doesn't look as good as I thought I did in my mind, you had the polarizer onto it adds a little bit of color to it. You see those clouds again, a little bit more clearly there. So the key thing on this is where is the sun and make a ninety degree turn okay? And so wherever the sun is you're going to get very little impact and so if we can turn on one of these cameras right in front and so imagine you are the sun and okay, if that's where the sun is I'm gonna get the greatest polarization right over here so you're nineteen years to my side I'm also going to be able to look over here and get really good polarizing and so wherever the sun is just do a little quarter turn and that's where we're going to get your maximum polarizing effect john I should want to pause and say being in the field with you this was my biggest haha about using those trips of filters was the ninety degree angle so take note of that it was always in the field like wait where's the where's the sun do I need the filter now or not? I mean I still reiterate that I still line myself up all the time it's like where is the sun? Okay, I'm going to get my right shoulder with my left shoulder in line okay? Is there's something over here that I can shoot and you know you know if I'm shooting this table here I could shoot it here, but I'm not going to get much polarization if you're the son, but if I can get the same shot in this angle I'm going to move myself in this position and so sometimes the sun is setting and I'm looking at what can I look at in these two directions because that's where the best lights going to be and I think john that just reiterates that it's not just about the tools but really knowing why and when to use them to get the effect that you want so just that's really true absolutely true so here is a case where I did not use the polarizer correctly yes you khun incorrectly use the polarizer and it khun mess up your photos all right so what we've done here is we've polarized the left part of the screen but the right part we haven't because the sun is somewhere off to the right hand side and so we need to be pointed ninety degrees and we're not really a full ninety degrees and we're shooting with white angle lens that is maybe seen almost ninety degrees and so polarizer czar very challenging to use I would say at less than twenty four millimeters for a full frame camera so if you have a sixteen millimeter to thirty five lens and you haven't set to sixteen it's very challenging to polarize because you're grabbing such a wide swath of the sky and unfortunately I have actually a very large collection of bad polarized image this is an image that does not haven't even blew across the sky I love this color blue here, this is a beautiful blue, but it just fades away in tow kind of whiteness over here that doesn't look nearly as good. And so I tried doing a video and so here's a video. I'm not pointing the camera in the right direction. Now, granted, it's pretty hard to move around the mountain to get to the other. So hyde and so it's, just not an option of using a polarizer in this particular case, and so some places it works. In some places, it doesn't. Where is the light coming from? Can you describe it straight off to the right hand side? Let's, add a polarizer, and we have a nice, strong impact in this case. So that's an excellent case when that sun is to the right and son to the left. So for the polarizer it's going to reduce those reflections is going to increase saturation it's going, increase that blue in the sky. But there is a warning that comes with this. The reason you do not leave this on your lands all the time is that it takes about two stops of light varies depending on how you have it set exactly what polarizer you have on there, and so it is not an indoor filter. I think of it as an outdoor filter there's exceptions to the rules, but if you're outside shooting pictures, it could be in the city. It could be in the nature doesn't matter that's a potential time where it may be helpful, and generally I will put it on where and I know I need it, and I'll leave it on for that period of shooting, maybe a little bit longer, but then I'm going to take it off normally, and I don't like to stack filters, and so if I am using a uv filter, I will take off the uv filter. Put the polarizer on, I'll take the uv put it wherever the polarizer was that's a nice little slot to keep it, and I try only to use one filter at a time. Something to be aware of for those who are using the wide angle lenses I mentioned before that its potential that you're going to shoot two wide of area of the sky so using a sixteen millimeter lands might not be the best thing with polarizer but sometimes it does work and you do want to use it something to be aware of is that if your lenses so wide you might actually see the filter on your front of your lands and so they do make special slim filters which are less thick now the downside to these slim filters is that they have no threads on the front side so you can't put a lens cap on and so that may or may not be an issue depending on how you shoot and so if you do have one of these lenses that go down twenty millimeters in below it's generally recommended to get a slim filter it really depends on the exact leads as to the design as to whether it needs it but it's the safer option two d'oh the's polarizer is can get stuck on the front of your lands and filters in general can get stuck on the front of your lands and it has to do with the fact is that they're circular and sometimes when you put him on you put him on too tight and you're squeezing them into a very slight oval shape and they work themselves in and as you grab to take it off you are grabbing it in a slightly different place than you grabbed it to put it on and so you're squeezing the circle into an oval in the wrong place and so the solution to getting a polarizer off and there is nothing I love more than somebody on one of our tours saying I've stuck my filter on and I can't get it up well let me try let me try I mean I'm the guy that wants to open the jar of pickles you know if that's the same type of like that challenge and there's a number of tricks and the first trick is to just change where you are holding your lands so instead of squeezing it here squeeze it over here or squeeze it over here just move where your fingers are on the lens the second option is get as many fingers on the lens so that you're not squeezing it into an oval and we're talking about very small fragments of a millimetre that you're squeezing it into an oval the and so then if that doesn't work then you move your hand to different positions on there and the final third trick which is actually worked out very well for me is you need to put a little pressure as possible so that when you're touching it you are barely touching it at all and I found that that was the secret I've been screener and then just turn it, and it comes right off. And so it's, just something's, just ease off, and his little pressures you can. It will come off, I mention before the drop in filters for the polarizer is and for the big white lenses and it's. Really cool, because they have polarizer is for this, which are the best type of polarizer, because they're right next to the camera. You could really quickly, easily adjust him, and all you do is just turn this little ill. And so I wished more lenses had these rear filters, so that you could just drop these little tiny filters in and adjust them so you can use it on the big lenses. But for some reason, these little tiny polarizer is because they're in their special little drawer system are very expensive. All right next type of filter is the neutral density filter and so this is going to be used for achieving slower shutter speeds or preferred apertures or shallower depth of field those of you who shoot video and if anyone out there shoots a lot of video they're going to probably have a number or a siri's or a collection of indie filters because they're trying to shoot it shallower depth the fields or particular shutter speeds and filmmakers don't have as much leeway with shutter speeds as still photographer so our needs are slightly different but we are using some of the same equipment for slightly different reasons all right so you're out in the out nature and you want to take a picture of a waterfall or some water running and you want to shoot at a very slow shutter speed and so let's just say we look through our camera we're at five six on the aperture and one hundred twenty fifth of a second on the shutter speed and we're thinking now we want to really slow shutter speed we want to slow this up so what are we going to do is we're going to change our aperture one two three four five stops down to f thirty two in this case which means we can go overto r shutter speeds and we can go down five stops lower down to a quarter of a second and get a nice slow shutter speeds so this is something I do a lot of in our fundamentals of photography class we're just going to a little bit of it here but with the filter but what if we want to go see lower than a quarter second well we are tapped out here we can't go any slower than f thirty two and so this is where we can enlist the help of a three stop neutral density filter which will make the picture darker when we put it on and we've talked about diffraction so we know we don't want to shoot it f thirty two we don't need to shoot it at thirty two for image quality in this scene we would prefer to be at a better image quality maybe it f sixteen where we're going to get less diffraction and now we still have we had three stops that was too we come back over to our shutter speeds and now we can get ourselves one stop slower on the shutter speed now what if we had a four stop? Well then we can go down to a full second. What if we had a five stop now we could go down to two seconds and with each of these changes the water is changing slightly. Now the indie filter that I use is a six stop indy filter so I can go six stop slower and I could get all the way down to four seconds rather than I think where we were back up at around a quarter of a second when we started and so how much of a difference is there let's go back to the no filter quarter second so I'm not getting quite the swirl the same swirl of water but I'm also shooting it up thirty two so if I add back in the indie filter I get to shoot at f sixteen, which is sharper so I'm going to get a sharper picture and I get this blur that is a little bit different that maybe I prefer and so it just gives me some more options if I'm shooting this type of shot out there and so here's an example of using a an extremely long shutter speed longer than you would normally be able to get in a daylight situation and so if you are trying to get these blurry waterfall shots working under fairly normal daylight situations it's very helpful if you're trying to do it under bright sunlight it is absolutely necessary there is no way that you were going to get this shot without an indie filter on there there's just too much light and the indie filter can really help you out so another little example let's run through some shutter speeds and apertures because people would like to see the compromises that you have to make so there's a waterfall city park you want to shoot a picture of it, but you want a really slow shutter speed the camera is inherently giving you s oh one hundred to fifty five a second and f eleven nice good in between city and you're thinking well I better stop my aperture down so that I could get a slower shutter speed and so we went four steps there we're going to go four steps on our shutter speed down to a thirtieth of a second thirtieth of a second yeah that looks pretty blurry but what if I want something quite a bit more well let's add in a six top indie filter which is going to make everything dark and now we can go down six stops on our shutter speed all the way down to two full seconds and that has a distinctly different look than our previous shot so let's take a look at where we started off at which was to fiftieth of a second we slowed it down to a thirtieth of a second and then we added the indie filter to get all the way down to two full seconds. Now this is available in many different stops, not just a six top but I have to say that I have I bought a six top and I really like it. I do it again if I had to buy the number of stops because there's different options out there so shooting water moving with those really slow shutter speeds can be a lot of fun here is probably the best waterfall I've seen this is tangle falls up in banff national park in canada. Beautiful, multilayered falls. And I was using the nd filter here to get the shot, because this shot is a six second exposure and it's, right next to the road. Anyone can part there and shoot it just super easy. So the neutral density filter this just simply dark filter neutral means it has no color to it we're not adding any sort of colors to it density just means it's dark there's a number of manufacturers that make these it is a little bit confusing as to how dense is this how dark is this? And so the simplest way to think about it is how many f stops does this change the exposure sometimes they measure these in optical density where point three is equal to one stop so I have one that is one point eight in the optical density sometimes it will be an exposure factor which actually means it takes sixty four times as much light to get the right exposure when shooting with one of these and so you can kind of refer back to this slide as to how dense is it you basically want to ask what's 00:22:11.228 --> 00:22:15. the reduction for still photographers it just doesn't 00:22:15.31 --> 00:22:17. make much sense doing one into it's just not enough 00:22:17.58 --> 00:22:20. change for cinematographer they might need it because 00:22:20.48 --> 00:22:22. they need to be very particular about getting to pitching 00:22:22.68 --> 00:22:24. certain shutter speeds but I think something in the 00:22:24.96 --> 00:22:27. three to ten range I'm not a big fan of the variables 00:22:28.2 --> 00:22:30. they tend to have a little bit of color shift to them 00:22:30.59 --> 00:22:32. but you know that may change with different brands 00:22:32.49 --> 00:22:35. and new models come out like the versatility of this 00:22:36.08 --> 00:22:40. but optically not quite a cz good as just choosing 00:22:40.54 --> 00:22:43. one has one particular set into it so that's something 00:22:43.77 --> 00:22:47. for you nature photographers out there another type 00:22:47.15 --> 00:22:50. of filter that is very helpful for people photographing 00:22:50.02 --> 00:22:52. a variety of types of landscapes and cityscapes is 00:22:52.94 --> 00:22:55. the graduated neutral density filter so we just talked 00:22:55.5 --> 00:22:58. about the neutral density filter the graduated one 00:22:59.25 --> 00:23:03. graduates from having a dense area to a light area 00:23:03.02 --> 00:23:05. and this is to darken the skies so that we can see 00:23:05.92 --> 00:23:09. more detail in the sky along with what is typically 00:23:09.09 --> 00:23:12. a darker landscape these filters most notably are 00:23:12.28 --> 00:23:14. not round you do not screw these in and the reason 00:23:14.79 --> 00:23:18. is is because they have a dividing line and you don't 00:23:18.08 --> 00:23:21. necessarily want that dividing line in the same spot 00:23:21.04 --> 00:23:23. all the time you want to be able to adjust it up and 00:23:23.67 --> 00:23:25. down and so they make these in a rectangular filter 00:23:26.14 --> 00:23:28. and these were going to work in a filter system on 00:23:28.54 --> 00:23:30. the front of your camera so it's going to happen and 00:23:30.21 --> 00:23:33. you'll have an adapter you'll have a bracket and then 00:23:33.21 --> 00:23:35. you could put this in there and you could move it 00:23:35.07 --> 00:23:37. up and down according to the composition of where 00:23:37.74 --> 00:23:40. the horizon is and where you need it and that's the 00:23:40.45 --> 00:23:42. way it's supposed to be done the way that I actually 00:23:42.26 --> 00:23:45. use it most of the time it's just handheld it's just 00:23:45.07 --> 00:23:48. a lot quicker holder gets to be kind of big and I 00:23:48.08 --> 00:23:50. often switching lenses which means I gotta sweat holder 00:23:50.28 --> 00:23:52. on all the lenses, and it gets home cumbersome and 00:23:52.2 --> 00:23:54. it's just a lot faster. Just hold it in front, get 00:23:54.44 --> 00:23:56. my quick shots and be done. And on to the next shot. And so here's a good example in the foreground I have some flowers ok nice pretty flowers and look at this magnificent sunset in the background isn't that a great sunset let's try a different exposure and okay there's our sunset but we need a completely different exposure in order to get this and in this situation I of course want the best of both worlds I want to see the flowers and I want to see the sunset so I set my camera for the flowers because this is thie clear part of the filter and now I'm going to take this filter and I'm just going to kind of bring it down so that it darkens the sky up here now this technique is also available using multiple photos so if you took two photos wanna teach you could then go into a photo shop and spent two hours blending them together and doesn't that sound like a lot of fun you could actually do a better job of it because I have technically darken this hillside which I know a lot of you were saying oh look at that hillside over there doesn't look so good I darken that hillside a little bit more than this is darkened down here but this is a simple quick way that gets it done in the field you get to see it in the field and if it works or not so it's a very effective technique that a lot of photographers use so that they can get exposure ranges from different areas, all in one shot. So without the nd filter let's, go ahead and add an indie filter on there. Now we can see just a little bit more color in our sky. Very subtle, adjusted. So any time you see lots of detail in the sky that is probably where a photographer has used an indie filter so without the indie filter let's add a little indie filter add a little bit more saturation to that sky by simply making it darker when you make areas of the sky darker you're typically getting the adding saturation was true from with most any other area and so just a little bit of help here in this case the skies mostly blown out we don't really see hardly any detail let's add some detail to the sky but we don't need to change the exposure everywhere else in the photograph so here is a really necessary place where without it it's just a throwaway photo and so anytime you see a photograph of a mountain in the sun and some flowers in the shade yes definitely it's either a multi shot technique but it's probably a neutral density filter that has been used to that they unbalance the vastly different levels of light in those two areas now these air made by a number of different manufacturers and they have a number of different ways of making them for instance a to stop in a three stop of the ones that I currently owned this is a to stop darker this is a three stop darker depends on the situation how much light I need to balance they do make him in one stop I don't know that they make him enforce it up. They also have different graduated levels where you could have a soft graduation, where you could have a hard line and a number of other ones, that meat very particular needs. But these are some of the most common. And so you're going to use these for darkening bright skies, compressing that overall toll range. So that it's something that your camera can actually handle. And there is the whole world of hdr, which we're not even going to touch on in here. Hi dynamic range photography, where you're shooting multiple photos. But you can't shoot multiple photos of things moving because they move, and they're in a different position when you shoot the second, third and fourth shot. And so this case, if you're trying to get it in a single shot, it's a better system for doing that type of photography. Close up lenses are not filters. They wantto make sure that you understand this is not a filter it's, a lens that you screw on the front, but it kind of fits in that category of it looks like a filter. It screws onto the front of the lands, and what this does is it enables you to focus up closer, and cannon has to siri's of these. One of them is designed for lenses seventy two, three hundred. Another couple of them are designed for thirty to one, thirty five we have, plus two diop tres and plus four doctors, which is a little bit closer up. But they are separate, depending on which lends you want to get them for, and then they have them in different filter sizes. And these I have not used, uh, just they've always had a bit of a reputation for being a little bit soft in the corners, but they are small. They're inexpensive way to enable you to focus closer and so it's. A potential that these air going toe workout for some people because they meet their basic needs for it. So the d in this whole five hundred d means it has two elements which means it doesn't have a ce much chromatic aberration as thie earlier versions which were just one element a slight downside is that you cannot focus to infinity becomes a close up lens at that time and so this is probably the third option when going into macro I would choose a macro lens I would choose extension tube's which we're going to talk about in a moment and this would probably be the third option the other problem I don't like about this is I end up with lenses with different filter sizes and these air not cheap I mean they're you know, seventy five, one hundred bucks or so and you would need one for each lens that you want to use and so it doesn't fit a lot of people's needs I don't see a lot of people using these out there but it might fit somebody's needs who said you know what? I have one lands I just need to get a little bit closer with this one lands one of the nice things about this is that it does not change your exposure and so you could add this on your lands and it's the same aperture, same f stop and same light gathering ability in the lance so interesting option in there so maybe we'll do a little check in on questions perfect john you know that there are always lots of questions on filters so one of the questions that came in from dna photography and had a vote as well some votes you had an image of the clay building with water in front so that casbah in morocco when you turn the polarizer the sky went nice and blue and the reflection in the water stayed reflected how did that happen? So people were thinking that that the polarizer would reduce the reflection in the water but that didn't happen yeah I think it would have reduced the report well if you recall the original photo of the fish in the lake what was the light reflecting as like camera would look down on the lake it was reflecting what was on so I'll do it sideways so it's that angle of view right there where as in the morocco are is that was morocco the light was coming from the side there really wasn't anything to look at and so I'll be honest with you sometimes when you're looking through these things it's a little mysterious and I would be incorrect to say that I always knew what's happening all the time okay uh and so sometimes I'm looking through there and I'm like I wonder why I don't see anything here and it generally has to do with how strong the light sources in the direction it's coming from, and I think in just that case there really wasn't a strong light hitting it at the right angle because the sun was coming more from the right hand side rather than where the camera was pointed at and so I don't know if that makes any sense I hope it makes a little what do you mean you don't always know what's going on wandering okay so can you go back tio this is from kicks is why is there a problem with stacking filters what does it do to the image okay so if you recall back to the features and technology section every lens element is another potential for reflection and refraction and diffusion and so we don't want to keep any more layers of glass in front of our lands as possible so we're always trying to keep that as clean and as few elements as possible and so one is not too much to lose not that bad but that's not what I would recommend and so potential flare issues and just loss of image quality great thank you and then just to kind of complete the section could you again review for people are asking about okay tell us again outdoor photography when dough I used the circular polarized or window used thie nd filter and the linear polarizer filters okay that dives into canada a separate top okay and so there is the indy graduated neutral density filters which is for darkening the sky. There are polarize er's which will darken the sky if the sun is at the correct angle. And so there are certain cases where the sun just isn't in the right angle for me to use a polarizer, so I'll use an indie filter to darken the sky, and so they are sometimes going to be used together. Sometimes I'll say, you know what? I can use a polarizer and the indie filter because I need to top in bark to darken the top of the sky as well as getting rid of these reflections. And so the polarizer issue there's a whole separate polarizer in the old days before autofocus, there was linear polarizer tze and mismatched with the autofocus system, and it actually blocked out the focusing and actually the exposure system is well, and so they redesigned the polarizing. We're not gonna explain why, but they call them circular paula reiser's, and so that you could now use a polarizer with your auto focus auto exposure camera. So most all the polarizer is that you're going to find today are going to be circular polarizer, however, think it's a conspiracy because I've used linear polarizer is on new, modern cameras and haven't had a problem. But before you do so yourself checked to see if it works in your camera.