Macro Lens: Reproduction Ratio
Sheltie lenses. We're gonna be talking about macro lenses, fisheye lenses and tilt shift lenses. And so these are really special lenses that the manufacturers, when they list all their lenses, here's a resumes and are primes, and then down here the specialty lenses there's something unusual, something different for very special purposes. And you might be wondering, well, why do I care about thies? I just need a basic zoom lens. Take a picture of my kid that was probably not necessary. This is probably one of those extra credit things you can do just to gather mohr photographic knowledge. Along with that, I think they're just kind of fun and interesting. And so I think it's, good for a couple of reasons. So we're going to be doing this will first be going through the macro lenses and then the fish eye and the tilt shell. And I got all sorts of technical and visual examples for all them. So I think it should be pretty good in this section. First off I want to talk about the macro lens a ...
lot of people have an eye for details and there is kind of a whole other world when you get into macro photography and so if we want to get into macro photography before we even look at the lens is we need to understand some of the terminology that's being used on the terminology that you really need to understand is reproduction ratio and we're not talking about geography and population growth here reproduction ratio on photography one of the things that you need to understand is what one two one reproduction ratio is it's where the object size and the image size are the same and frankly this was a lot easier back in the days of film because we used to get our film back from the store and we could see how big the objects are on it so let's say we're going to photograph a coin all right? These coins are both about the exact same size they're very close to one inch in whip very close to twenty four millimeters in wit and so if you were to photograph one of these coins with a one to one reproduction lens that coin would be exactly the same size on the film. All right, so the coin and the picture of the coin are exactly the same and now we're using digital sensors and it's a little hard to look at your digital sensor to see what size your subject is but this is the size of this is the shape of our final subject for our final pictures so we will be able to tell it's just not quite as directive a comparison so when we photographed with one to one lens in our digital sensor it's going to fill up pretty much the entire frame on the short edge because it's twenty four millimeters in this short height and it's twenty four millimeters roughly across each of these coins what about if you're using a cropped frame camera well the object size and the image size are still the same it's just that we have less area here and so if we were to compare the size of our coin in each of these frames they are going to be the same no matter what size sensor using so those crop frame sensors are just simply cropping in had giving you covering less area of that coin and so the final result is the same as the original and this is a standard and it's usually what most photographers I mean when they talk about a macro winds they're talking about a lands that gets one to one close although there are macro lenses that are not this good they are kind of the next step down and that would be one two two half life size so it's a wonder to reproduction ratio so it is going to pier one half the size on the sensor or in the final image and so in this case our final subject is about twelve millimeters across the originalist twenty for so it has been reduced to a half size this is still pretty good close up capability but not as good as one to one half life size works out a little bit better on the crop frame because that's not quite full frame but it's filling up more of the frame over here we're ending up with a lot of white space so what is the reproduction ratio of your lands how big can it reproduce an object quarter life size is going to be much more common on lenses that have normal ability with a little bit of close up capability we're going to be able to measure this and test this on a variety of lenses including you can do it on your own lenses on this show you how to do here how to do that here in just a little bit and so a quarter size going to be a little bit smaller in screen if you find a macro lens if you turn the focusing ring you're probably going to turn the focusing ring there we go and you're going to see these numbers on the top row which indicate the reproduction ratio size you can dial it in ahead of time I know I need a one to five reduction reproduction racial, which means it's one fifth, the size in the final image as it is in the real world. If you want to get pretty close, you're gonna probably want to get one, two, two. If you want to get really close, you're going to want to go all the way to a one to one, which is usually the closest. Most subjects will be able to focus on a good macro let's. So wonder one has another way of being illustrated defined its a one times magnification the final image is exactly the same size as the original if you have something that is a one to two reproduction ratio that is known as a point five magnification cause it's magnified half of light side life size and so what we're doing is we're basically basically dealing with fractions and decimals they're equal but they're illustrated differently in the text so quarter size now the eighty five millimeter lens one point eight which I really like for portrait work is one of the worst cannon lenses when it comes to close up capability on its own it only does point one three magnification which is not very good considering one point five point two and so this is getting down here too probably what is that about one one eight reproduction ratio a little better than that is point to one on that really inexpensive fifty millimeter lands better yet again as these numbers get larger as they get closer to one that means we're able to reproduce something larger and larger in the lens so this is even better than the previous lenses over here at close up capability I believe and I haven't tested all of them but I believe the twenty four to seventy is the best close up lens that you can get that isn't specifically designed as a macro lens its point seven in the magnification so that's over half life size, which is really good for kind of a standard general purpose lands. But if you really wanted to get into this, you need a macro lands and most of them there's a wide variety with cannon. This one gets one, times magnification, which is kind of that gold standard for most macro photographers. So there is a way to estimate the ratio that you have in your camera and in your lens. If we think about our sensor, if you have a full frame sensor it's twenty four millimeters, or roughly one inch on the short side and we can photograph a coin and we can see if we can fill the coin with that. But if we don't have a coin, you can use a ruler and to see if you can see one inch focused as close as you can get, you have a one to one reproduction ratio. Now, if you have a crop frame sensor, it is about twenty two millimeters, which is pretty close to that twenty four millimeters, which is pretty close to that one edge. And so you could bring a yardstick in, and you could measure one inch down here. Or you could look at twenty two millimeters. And so how much? How close can you get to a ruler and how much distance can you see in there? So looking through the viewfinder of a full frame camera, find a ruler, put it right up to the edge and see what you get in there. If you see one inch on the short side of the frame, you have a one to one reproduction ratio. You're also looking at twenty five millimeters. If you prefer the metric system, one, two, one reproduction ratio is the same as one, times magnification. If you see two full inches, or around fifty millimeters, then it's going to be half life size. And so for most of your lenses you're probably only going to be able to see three inches you can't get any closer than this so there at one third reproduction ratio and so these air fairly easy numbers and this is where actually I prefer the metric system but this is where inches worked pretty well because one inch is equal to the height or at least very very close to it in a normal full frame camera so if you can see five inches that's a one to five reproduction ratio it's one fifth life size now if you have a crop viewfinder I think it's easier to measure across the long side because the long side is very close to one inch so it depends on what type of camera you have as to what sort of reproduction ratio that you're going to get in there it's the best way to measure it in my mind and so two inches something means we're going to be at half life size and it depends on what you're going to be photographing or you're going to be photographing coins or small dolls how big is the subject that you want a photograph and that will help determine how good or how intensive macro lens that you need to get and so what we're going to do is we're going to do eh first time john gringo tethering live in the studio and we're going to test out a few of these lenses over here, and so I think let's say, well, we'll just go through a slider to maurine the keynote, and then we'll be ready to go. So if you're trying to figure out, well, I want to know how good my lands is at close up capability. You're trying to figure out what the ratio is it's one to something, and we're trying to figure out what the x says. You need to set your lens to minimum dist this and this is easiest done if you manually focus your land. So we're going to do this as an example here in just a moment, we're just simply going to move the camera closer to our subject in order to focus, and we're going to measure the short side in millimeters, if you want to get really exact and then what we would dio is we would divide by twenty four, so if you want to get very exact or you could do it in inches and you can kind of do an estimated ratio if you have a crop frame sensor, set the lens to the minimum distance, so the same same set up on this, you're going to move the camera closer to focus. You're going to measure the long side and millimeters which is ideally going to be twenty two for a one to one reproduction ratio and then he would simply divide by twenty two point four if you want to get very exact in this process and so I'm going to be working with inches just cause they're a little bit simpler to work with and so we're going to we're going to switch over and we're going to get the keynote off and we're going took our camera up tethered where is my camera my cameras over here and so let's go ahead and emily would you mind helping out helping me out in this section because I don't want to appear that I have set things up so what I'd like you to do is come up here to the lenses and I would like you to select a lens and let's let's not go with the eight hundred millimeter huge lands you can pick anything on the top row anything back in here and we're going to measure how good these lenses are remember a good macro lenses one to one and so what I'm going to be doing this I'm going to be photographing this very exciting ruler we're going to set this up here and I'm just going to shoot it like this the hand we have you assist me hold that and she chooses probably the most expensive flynn's here just put that there and we'll just put this right here. This is the what do you what did you select? Eighty five millimeter, one point to, okay, this lens is likely to be very bad, so I am going to make sure that this camera is set up for x soldier wise, and I'm gonna throw this in the manual focus and let's, get this so set up a little bit. I want to make sure I get a sharp shot. Okay, so the process is is mount your lens on the camera and now manually focus to minimum distance, and so I'm just going to turn the lens to the minimum distance and this lens says that I can focus down somewhere near just under a meter, says point nine five and it goes a little pat passed, and so what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna look in the viewfinder and I'm just gonna back up and I'm not going to focus and actually I'm backup so far, but I need to adjust this year and where am I? I am right here. So I'm going to take the shot and we'll see if we can pop this up on screen. At least I think that was the hope of the plan, so we'll see if we get this up on screen and we'll see how many inches one ratio acts is going to be our reproduction ratio on this one. One is great. One to two is pretty good and here we go. So we're going to see one to eight that's not a very good reproduction rations. So emily, please choose another lens over there. Take this one off. All right, so thirty five let's have you just swap out that? And so if you recall that this is the thirty five two I mentioned that this lens is pretty good and close up, so I'm going to guess when I haven't shot this, but I'm going to guess we can probably see, like, four inches filling frame so once again I'm gonna throw this in the manual focus focus all the way down to minimum distance and I'm just going to move in until I see this thing in focus I'm gonna line up zero on the bottom. Wow, I'm getting nice and close here and so I'm gonna line up one in the bottom and we're going to see this pop up what did I guess? Four for and let's see what we're actually getting here on our reproduction ratio because this is one to eight. Not so good. Look at that. No, emily, we were not in cahoots with you picking this lens out. Yeah, so let's, pick another one. So this is pretty good one to four reproduction ratio and let's see if you can find a zoom lens let's, get a zoom lens something that has a zoom. Okay, think there's like a twenty four to seventy twenty four two one o five that might be good. Even the seventy two, two hundred would be okay this one okay it's not a zoom but let's do it anyway well people look for assume I'm going to do this one anyway so this is a four hundred millimeter five point six manually focus all the way down closest focusing is twelve feet okay this is gonna be interesting and so I'm gonna have to back up wait I forgot to put this in manual focus my fault and what of my focus on I need to come back a little further okay but this is a really strong telephoto lens and I could really use some stabilization right now and I might have a slightly blurry photo but let's see what this looks like and you've got a zoom lens there we'll get ready for the next life okay and so a little blurry because I was it's a hard land still hand hold the four hundred and so this lands we can see one two seven one eight so one two eight reproduction rationing not that good you know it would make this linds focus a lot closer extension tube's like those extension tips that we talked about before so now we have a twenty four to one or five let's figure out how good this is now this one and I don't know if you could get a fairly close shot here actually says macro on it and so as we focus up closer on it it says macro now macro is it's like when a car company says this car goes fast. What do you mean? How fast is fast? And so I am going to shoot this twice. I'm gonna shoot it once, it twenty four and once at one o five to see how good and see see 00:16:12.311 --> 00:16:14. where our best saw it is and so I'll start at wide 00:16:14.85 --> 00:16:18. angle and set it to twenty four. I'll leave it macro 00:16:18.36 --> 00:16:20. as far as it can in minimum distance. I'm going to 00:16:20.82 --> 00:16:22. make sure I'm in manual focus because I don't want 00:16:22.43 --> 00:16:27. my camera to refocus and I'm gonna move in right 00:16:28.7 --> 00:16:33. here for focus. And as I said before, this lands has 00:16:33.73 --> 00:16:35. a lot of barrel distortion at wide angle, and you 00:16:35.79 --> 00:16:39. can really see that here. So let's, uh, let's see, 00:16:40.9 --> 00:16:43. all right, so that looks a little dark. I'm going 00:16:43.07 --> 00:16:45. to see if I can adjust the exposure. I will turn on 00:16:45.63 --> 00:16:47. the stabilisation, that's, that's fine hat 00:16:48.8 --> 00:16:50. I'm gonna take another side. I think I could get a 00:16:50.59 --> 00:16:51. better exposure. 00:16:54.1 --> 00:16:57. Okay, so this is the twenty four two one o five and 00:16:57.37 --> 00:16:59. we're looking at seven, eight, nine, ten, eleven, 00:16:59.5 --> 00:17:02. twelve ok, one to twelve ratio that's not very good 00:17:02.44 --> 00:17:05. that is that our worst so far. Yes, that's hard work, 00:17:05.59 --> 00:17:07. yeah, one to twelve that's our worst so far. So let's 00:17:07.72 --> 00:17:11. assume this out to actually let's this's fun. I'm going to do it at fifty and then will do one of five, so we'll do three steps on this. So this is fifty minimum distance. Oh, yeah, we're definitely getting closer here, so we'll do a shot there on let's. Take a look, takes moment for it to come up and we're going getting in a little bit closer. So if you want to shoot macro with this lands it's, better to shoot a little bit more telephoto. So now we're in the one two six rage, which is getting pretty good that's better than the others were going toe to toe one of thought, one of five. Oh, yeah, now, now we're getting in there. Right here. Okay, so let's. See where we are here. And so this is the one. Oh, five, twenty four, two, one oh, five at one o five at the minimum distance. Okay, my sharpness leaves a little to be desired here, but just for testing purposes that we can see it is a one to four reproduction ratio, which is quite good for a zum general purpose lands. And so this is one 00:18:10.274 --> 00:18:13. of the lenses that does a pretty good job doing that. Thank you, emily. And sit down and so kind of leave these up here for now. And so I think, that's all we need to do in this I don't know if I should just hand this off. And so that's. How you contest your own camera is just get a yardstick. And if you have a full frame, you want to see what the short edge of it is and how many inches you see and it's probably going to be somewhere between those one, two, four, four inches versus maybe ten or twelve inches in which is not quite as good. And so knowing how close you can focus and how big of area you're going to get to is just one of those nice things to know about your lenses.