Editing Workflow and Media Management
Now you remember, I was talking about the fact that today I want to focus on having you guys make some money as opposed to simply learn a new piece of software. In order for us to make money, we have to complete a job and one of things that I found that that helps me both to structure the training and to help people understand how they need to efficiently use their time is to create a workflow. So I have a high tech white board here that I want to share a workflow with you, it's, a it's, an eleven step workflow, and the first step is to plan now, when I teach high school kids, they hate the word planning they want to get in there, and they want to add effects, and they want to add cut, and they want to add dissolves and wipes, and they want to have the thing group all singing, all dancing and wrong. I mean, if you're creating a program for three year olds on sesame street, you're going to create a different kind of program that you're creating it for sixty year olds to show an aarp mee...
ting. It could be the same pictures, but you're not going to edit it the same. If you're going to create a program for the web you're going to edit it differently going created for broadcast if you're gonna edit a program that's going toe have still pictures and lots of audio going to do differently than if it's all video and no stills what's your deliverable what format you need to provide how long does it need to be who's your audience what he need to provide for the audience thieves of the things that we have to plan the first step is to sit down and think about what we're doing which is really painful it's looking at a blank sheet of paper and trying to figure out what we want to do with that blank sheet of paper the second step is I used to call this capturing I now call it gather gather your media let's put it all in one spot what do I have to shoot what do I have to buy what do I have to create what do I have to rent the key concept is let's get it all together I'm reminded of a story a few years ago I was invited to put together a thirty second video for a large multinational corporation they said larry we are launching a new product this product is going to launched the biggest trade show in our industry this is going to be seen by tens of thousands of potential customers we need to have this be incredible it's got to be a thirty second video that's just phenomenal we wanted to be mission impossible can you edit mission impossible well no of course not I've never had an admission impossible in my life but this is a client that pays money I said of course I can add admission impossible it will be great I could see it now I had wide shots I had tight shots I had insects close ups reverses all kinds of inset angles it's it was an every you know in mission impossible every shot takes two thirds of a second or less it's going toe to toe cut was going to be phenomenal so I said do you want me to shoot it for you or are you guys going to shoot it they said no no no we can shoot it's easy well I had bought the gear so they could go off and shoot it and they went off and shoot it and a month later they came back to me and with great pride they handed me this dv tape. Now this is a few years ago when standard def was the standard in the industry and a dv tape was a perfectly acceptable format for delivery and it was a sixty minute dv tape and I said thirty second commercial sixties minute dv tape that's up oh that's about one hundred twenty to one shooting racial there's plenty of stuff to work with I put the dv tape in the system and I played the first shot it's a wide shot two guys that can't act sixteen takes and they nailed a three and a half second shot okay, I could deal with this continued playing the tape second shot a wide shot same two guys still couldn't act eighteen takes and they finally nailed a four second shot so I've got three and a half seconds and for six times seven a half seconds into a thirty six commercial play the tape it's getting desperately close to the un twenty one takes twenty one takes and these same two guys that still couldn't act finally nailed the final scene that was it fade to black kind of tape I had three wide shots that ran exactly eleven and a half seconds I had thirty seconds left to fill and I had nothing else they want to look like it's mission impossible it was mission impossible but it wasn't impossible for them it was impossible for me and you will discover this is the number one trick of being an editor most times you are not crafting art you're solving a problem and I had a problem I had twenty one seconds of absolutely nothing to happen so what's the very first thing you do when you've got confronted with the fact that I gathered all the media and I had exactly three shots to work with you go to the music library I found the most matic music it was like nfl on steroids I dropped down this thirty second music clip and even in black it made you stand up and salute it was amazing and then I put in a still image a graphic a piece of text that said new in big bold white letters and held it on the screen for three seconds new is the music is throbbing away and then I dropped into three and a half second watch out of the two guys that couldn't act in and put in another graphic that said never before seen dropped in the four second shot in the graphic held for four seconds I'm now up to twenty seconds I've only got ten seconds left to fill the music just robbing I put in a third still image that is a picture of the product and a shot of our two guys to can't act and at the end I said available today with two exclamation points fade to black the client loved it had nothing to do with mission impossible but from a distance of two hundred fifty feet in a trade show you could see everything about that product you could see that it was new you could see a product image you could see the address of what it was and if you got close enough the music made you stand up and dance it isn't until you gather all your assets together that you know what you've gotta work with and from that whatever that pool happens to be, you can craft the project that you want to create which gets me to the third point. The third point is to build the story in my mind that mission impossible was a flawless. It was like sixty shots crammed into a thirty second environment. In reality, it was seven shots, four of which were still images, just text scattered with three short skits. When I build it, I don't try to create perfection. I just try to get it to the time line so I can look at it. Perfection comes like all things is you rehearse and you look at it and you refine it over and over. Think of a school report that you wrote or ah, report for your boss, you get it drafted an ego back and crafted or think of a drawing nobody creates a photo shop drawing that's perfect fresh out of the box, you lay it down, you start to manipulate it, you work on it, you tweak it same thing with video video is highly tweak a ble get it built until it exists in the timeline, there's nothing that you've got to critique. It's all in your imagination your imaginations always perfect it isn't to get it down to the timeline or you can say ok let's make changes then we need to organize the clip what's the beginning what's the middle what's the end organize it one thing I've learned about stories his most stories don't start at the beginning most stories start in the middle and then go back and flush in the early details and in flesh in the conclusion stories they're not always linear maybe your story isn't either maybe you show the result the happy customer and then how they got there with all the hard work who knows until you've got it built you can't organize it and then the fifth step is to trim I was sitting in the hotel last night thinking about this presentation and I realized that trimming is a concept that a graphic artist has no knowledge of but trimming to video is cropping toe a photograph trimming is getting rid of all the stuff that's not relevant keeping just the stuff that is relevant when we crop of photograph we're focusing in on the absolute essential when we trim video we are smoothing the transition from one shot to another we're going to spend a lot of time with these five steps today this is the essence of editing this is the part that people who are self taught find one way to do something and they figure that because they discovered it, it must be the best way this is where you're going to spend ninety five percent of your time it's not the sexy part it's not the fun part sexy is in text and effects but it's the essential part so those were the first five steps I call this the create story phase this is where we actually build the story I've spent years making my handwriting electable jim, I think you should be very proud of how it looks so the other side though let's pick this up and move it around the other steps are the fund steps that's what I call polishing the story here we add transitions, there's three types of transitions there's a cut there's, a dissolve under wiping each one of them has a different emotional impact we're going talk about when you want to use the transitions and why you want to use a different transition same thing as as ah feathered edge looks different from a sharp edge there's reasons to use one there's reasons to use the other will explain that. But we don't start to do transitions until we got our story built and the reason is is that if you've got say, you take two minutes or five minutes to add a transition and he realized you don't want one of the shots you just wasted that transition? You don't get that five minutes back. There is never enough time to edit video. We never finish a project. The project is ripped from our hands and released to the world while we can still tweak it to make it better. Well, if we don't have enough time to finish our project, we've got to be darned efficient with the time that we've got. Don't start doing effects and you got the story told seven text and effects this will. This will take. This will take us much time as you have available. Effects will suck up everything all the time. Period until about an hour and a half after the deadline you can always add another effect. You can always tweet that you can always make it better. The question is not can I make it perfect? Perfect is unattainable. The question is, can I make it good enough? A lot of a lot of editors say they want to make the film to their standards. This is a way of never getting paid. You want to make the film that meets the standards of your client? If your client is happy, they will pay you and the job is done and you move on. If the client is saying, well, wait a minute I thought we were done a week and a half ago there's a point where you're just making changes because it makes you happy but you're still not collecting a check my goal at the end of the day is to pay the rent not just simply to create something that's perfect I've learned that perfect is almost unattainable then we do an audio mix which is make our audio sound as good as we can then we'll do a color pass called color grading which makes the color look as good as it can and then we do an output and then we do archive and the two are not the same when we out put a file we're creating a master file from this we create a variety of derivative projects we've got one for dvd we've got one for blew away we've got one for the web we've got one for broadcast we got one for airline use who got one for cable use you got one for one browser one for another browser you got and suddenly this one movie that you've created has multiple multiple iterations. We're gonna talk about the best way to get the file output from premier so that you can create as many derivatives traumatised you want without having to go back into premiere and waste time messing with the project but the real question is archiving have you ever seen gone with the wind or casablanca? Those films were shot fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty years ago, and yet we're still watching them quite happily today. How come and the reason is the film itself was shot and saved in a format that people in the future can watch. One of the challenges that we have today is how are we going to save our digital assets for the long term? The answer is, we don't really have a good idea, yet we can save stuff for a couple years on hard disk, but how do I save something for ten years or fifteen years, twenty years or fifty years? Now, most of the work that we create doesn't need to be saved that long, but every so often it does. What do we save it on? Who pays for it? Is the client playing paying for archiving? Are you paying for archiving? And as the archive standards change who's responsible for changing them? This gets back to the planning that we were talking about at the beginning of the presentation. How do we store our assets for the long term who's responsible and who pays for it? Hard disks are wonderful for editing and for operational use, but they're not good for long term storage, yet for most independent producers, they're all we've got dvds are fine but they only hold four gigabytes of data which is fine maybe for a compressed version of your movie but doesn s or your source assets when james cameron created avatar he created to peter bytes of data there's megabytes, gigabytes there's actually there's terabytes there's exabytes under speedo bites he created to peter bites who's going to tell james cameron he can't store that media somewhere how are they going to store that media how they gonna start for fifty years so that avatar can have multiple generations in the future? Who knows the best that we can get us about twenty five years and the format is a format called lto six stands for linear tape open it's, a tape based digital tape based format where each cartridge holds about one point eight terabytes of data. So the problem is is that up until recently and I mean like next month up until recently, the cost of these units have been in the six to twelve thousand dollars category as in tray level point, which if you're a studio are like a large company like creative life. Having that kind of tape asset back up is easy because you've got the budget to afford it but most filmmakers most graphic designers air small one two three person shops and spending ten thousand dollars for a piece of hardware takes an act of faith on a budget that most people don't have so one of the things that we're looking at is coming up with some new technology which I think is going to be shipping in july of this year was going to finally bring the cost of archiving down to below four thousand dollars including the software which means that for the first time we've got an affordable way of upgrading of archiving our media for the long term but even with lto the life span of an lto tape the life span is twenty five years but the format itself changes every eighteen months and the current format will read two formats back which means is part of your eye car archiving strategy you need plant every six years that everything that you've archived your assets on is out of date and you now have two migrated to the new version, which means every six years you're going to spending another four to six thousand dollars to be able to buy the latest archiving because film which lasted for one hundred years is no longer a valid way it's not affordable and it it can't be used for digital assets we just can't lay stuff off to film cost effectively so for that reason you need to think about how you want to protect this for the long term they're spinning this that I've got there five years old they're still holding assets but at some point those hard disks are going to break and when they do, what do we do so let's just take a look for a second on where we've been because I want to throw jim open for a question I'm going to be a heads up there, jim several things one is we need to have a fast computer that part's true the second is we have to have very large storage and that storage has to be very fast. We want to connect not the a u s b two or us let's see hang on how we connect our storage makes a difference usb two to slow firewire four hundred to slow firewire eight hundred on older systems it's our only option but it's just barely fast enough u s b three is ok thunderbolt on macintoshes is preferable usb three on windows machines is okay but it needs to have more than one dr attached. You have to have your boot dr plus a second drive for media if you're working with smaller formats like abc hd or h dot to sixty four smaller formats could be played successfully off a single drive. If, on the other hand you have larger formats like red files or raw files or pro rest files or dmx hd files or abc entra files these air very large formats that require massive amounts of bandwidth between your storage in your computer and these these are going to require a raid a raid our ideas multiple hard disks that are all grouped together to form a single very large, very fast device. The good news is they were great. The bad news is they cost more money we need to have a modern computer but don't obsess over we need to have really fast really high speed a large storage we need to make sure that the camera that we're shooting is compatible with our software. Camera manufacturers released cameras that are not editable today you want to make sure that the county you've got khun be edited you want to store your media to a second drive you want to plan what you're doing and focus on your work flow to make sure that you are spending time doing that which needs to be done not that which you want to do do stuff in the order of the workflow you'll get your work done faster all this stuff is getting yourself set up and ready to go before we even touched the software which is what we're going to be doing for the rest of the day. Jim we got any questions so far on workflow or media management door system configuration yes or three questions okay estrella do you have any recommendations for external hard drives? I am a big fan of several companies promise makes good gear g technology makes good gear there's some smaller companies cal digit makes good gear um, um o w c, which is a mac sales makes good gear there's multiple different levels of raids. There's a single drive which attach is via thunderbolt. But even though thunderbolt is a very fast protocol, the single drive itself tends to be slow. Its one hundred megabytes a second, which seems fast to a still person but to a video person. It's okay, but not great raids are a I d will have two drives, which is a raid. Zero it's very fast. But if one of those two drives dies, you've lost all of your data. Most editors don't like the phrase you've just lost all of your data. For some reason, they get depressed, so we prefer to work with two other raid formats. There's raid one and raid five. Raid zero is the fastest it's the cheapest, and it will always have two drives inside there's a number of raids zero drive throughout their firewire and thunderbolt raid. One has two drives and the two drives mirror each other there's identical information on both drives. We use thes most in onset and production when we're copying camera cards to a raid one because what that allows us to do is to have the exact same data stored on two different drives off one dr dies we've got it on the other drives the good news of right one it's very secure but it's also very slow and you don't get any benefits of maximum storage raid ones are fine for onset but not good for editing a raid five consists of a minimum of three which I've never seen or generally four or five hard drives a raid five creates what's called parody data which means that if I lose this drive all of my data is intact because it's designed toe lose one drive and keep all of our data safe I then simply replace that drive it rebuilds and all my data is secure raid five hold the most they tend to be the fastest they also tend to be the most expensive and a really, really in short supply right now because with the new switch to thunderbolt first thunderbolt wanted now thunderbolt too we're seeing that a lot of manufacturers are having having some issues getting thunderbolt two drives manufactured and approved for release in the market it's taking longer than anybody expected drives that were renounced oh say six seven months ago or even at anybody this year in april I think going to start to see those drives finally hit the market the last part of june and the month of july if you have the option investing a raid five g technology cal digit akechi oh promise o w c I store these are all companies that are really good for archiving not archiving but hard disks that air raid fives but get a raid five that's thunderbolt two compatible you won't get thunderbolt two speeds but you want to get the later technology is your raid is compatible well into the future second question um location of backup drives do you keep one off site and one on site backup drives and editing drives are two different things I've got two hard drives the boot drive which is inside my computer and the second drive which is attached to the computer which has the media that I store for editing you khun daisy chain drives together on my editing system back at the office I have three drives an internal into external drives these air not backup drives thieves to the actual drives the media stored for editing purposes. If I make clones of that drive for the purposes of a backup, then I would store that back up somewhere else either elsewhere in the office or off site if it's a really important project and I'll have a clone that stored elsewhere in the office and off site but the drives and I'm talking about the external drives are attached the computer and they are used on a moment by moment daily basis for the purposes of editing video thank you third question third question do you use any external quickie devices for doing key commands an external you know for contour contoured designs has a wonderful device called the shuttle pro. The shuttle pro is a little scroll wheel, which allows you to quickly shuttled back and forth between video as well as the siri's of buttons, which you can then program with keyboard shortcuts. And I've had the pleasure of playing with them a number of times the the answer is, do I personally use that? The answer's? No do I know people that are very happy using the answer is absolutely, yes, it really is a question of personal preference, and the reason that I don't is I am first and foremost a trainer. I'm not an editor, I do editing because that's what I trained, but the number one thing that I do was help people understand how to use the software, and I don't want to go into any a client or into any classroom, for instance, here I don't have control over all the equipment that I use, so I always teach myself to work with an absolute bare bone system, because that way, wherever I go to teach, I can work with whatever here and they've got. But if you're for instance, with you a zit, your art director, you've got this system, you've got the monitor that you want, you've got probably, ah, wakame tablet and you've got maybe a stylist and you've got a specialized keyboard with keyboard shortcuts on we've got all this stuff that specifically designed to help you do art. Well, I worked to teach, and so I would come in and I okay, I can use the tablet and I can be ok with it, but I don't have to be proficient because that's not what my job is. If you're comfortable with these external devices, they will save your time. If you're a mouse and keyboard person used the mouse and keyboard the nice thing about premieres you can configure it toe work however you want with whatever outboard gear and there's tons about your gear, from tablets to teo a contour shuttle pros to jog wheels toe just external keyboard shortcut pads to I mean there's all kinds of stuff and just pick the one that works the best for you perfect thing here. I think we have a question in the studio audience. Hey, lance! Hi, larry so so just some clarity on the raid. Five is that almost the same is rada ray. A raid array means a collection of hard disks they're all stored inside a single box. That box can hold us fewest, too, because if it's a single drive, it doesn't qualify as a raid. A rage stands for redundant array of an expensive drives, devices or discs. There's a lot of argument about what the d stands for but means more than one drive in a box could be a minimum of two could be a maximum of eighteen. The more drives you have, the faster it goes, the more it costs, the more it holds. A raid zero is always to drives very fast, inexpensive but no doubt a redundancy, a raid one complete data redundancy not very fast just doesn't hold a lot. Rade five very fast data redundancy. If I lose the drive, I don't lose anything but it's more expensive, so for editing, if you're going to invest money and he needed today, the drive that you're most likely find on store shelves is a rape zero if you wait about two or three more weeks, the drives were most likely to find on store shelves that are designed for editing our raid. Five's raid raid system raid away these ralph words that describe multiple hard drives in a single box is also a term called j bod j b o d, which is just a bunch of disks. And that's a bunch of discs which air group in a single box but when you show them on your desk top each disc appears with its own icon when you show a raid on your desktop it's a single icon that represents all those drives gathered together into a single disc makes sense yes it does thank you you're welcome by the way good to have you with us today thank you jack good to have you with us as well will move to the computer I want to talk about one more thing before I talk about how premier works you'll notice here on my desktop I have a boot drive which is called macintosh hd and I also have a second drive which is this small little unit down here it's a thunderball detached drive it's a single drive from a company called g technology the reason I'm working with a single drive system in this particular case is simply because I don't need to have great performance I just need to have, uh access to my media on a second drive on the second drive I've created a folder on the second drive I've created one folder called premier scratched discs right there I created this folder and the reason I created it is I need to have a place to store the work files that premiere needs to create so before even start premiere I create this folder I then created a second folder called premier projects. This is where we're going to store the project's remember, a project is a container that holds pointers to media and holds all the edit instructions for our sequences, so I've created this folder myself. I've created a scratch disk folder myself, and I've put all of my source media, the media files so I'll be working with throughout today inside a third folder called source media I never, ever, ever, ever back up scratched discs scratched us to rebuilt by premier whenever it needs it. It's, not an issue. When I'm making backups, I will make backups of my project files, and I'll make backups of my source media. So when I need the archive stuff or I want to just protect me in case of a disaster overnight, then I will back up the project files and the source media source media's what we capture from our camera inside the premier project file. These are the projects they all end with the extension dot pr, pr o j and these air the project files. They could be tiny from just a couple hundred k two quite large. Several hundred not several hundred megabyte but several dozen megabytes, and they all have this icon, which is the purple icon for premier. These are technical files that premiere uses just nod your head smilin salei understand all this stuff and as you can see, I have a wide variety of projects to choose from so this is what my project file is stored in is where my source media is stored in and these are the technical files and I have these all created inside the second attached drive to my computer the premier interface looks like this this is premiere this is the cc release of premier it has twenty one different panels that are available to us and inside those panels we can access them by going up to the window menu. Those panels which are checked are currently visible in the interface. Those panels which are not checked are invisible in the interface and normally we're gonna be editing with a layout that looks something like this this top right windows called our program window this is what we're actually creating the top left windows called the source monitor the source window this is ah a shot that we're considering using but may or may not be inside our timeline, which is the box down here on the low left corner lower right corner this is what we're actually editing these air the shots that are all strong together to tell a particular story over here is ah almost a utility set of panels this is a list of the files that we have available to us in our project, the files that we are looking at on our hard disk, as well as a siri's of other panels tucked in between here if we look very closely there's ah, tool palette the tool palette allows us to select a variety of tools that were going to use as we do our editing most of the time going to be using the move tool of the selection tool keyboard shortcut us the letter v, which is indicated by that parenthetical letter. As we move down here, you'll see that every one of the tools has a keyboard shortcut. We're also able over here to view our audio levels. This is something we'll be talking about after lunch today as we talk about how to set our audio levels inside the timeline there is a track header here and then we have individual clips which you see being highlighted here there's a heavy gray line the gray line represents above the line is where the video clips are located below the linus where the audio clips are located. Individual tracks are labeled v one for video track one video track to video track three audio track one audio track two audio track three there's a technical limit of ninety nine video tracks in ninety nine audio tracks inside premiere but in point of fact you'll never use that many the most video tracks have ever used on annette it's thirty one the most audio tracks have ever used on an editor's twenty six so practically there's no limit to the number of audio and video tracks and just like with premier clips that are stacked on top of other clips are in the foreground same way as layers inside premiere and clips that are below other clips are in the background not see what else can we talk about inside the program monitor there's lots and lots and lots of different controls this is very much like wherever you click something unusual is going to show up but I want to just call your attention to three buttons first the fit window here allows us to change the size of our image we are not changing the size of the image that we are out putting this is simply a display functions like type typing in photoshopped command plus to zoom in and command minus to zoom out we're enlarging the display but we're not making the image itself bigger or smaller the second is this bar down here let's take a closer look at this this little golden thing is called the play head the play had represents what we're looking at at that moment in time and if you could imagine that little t bar is pointing to a single frame it's interesting in photo shop we spend time concentrating on editing a single image and that image could have taken a sixtieth of a second to shoot with a camera in video we had a twenty for those images a second or sixty of those images of second and we need to be able to see which exact image we're looking at well that's with the play had represents as we dragged the play head back and forth we are looking at each individual image off that clip and that means that our way of thinking about images has to change because now we're not just looking at the contents of a single image we're looking at the juxtaposition of one image to the next video is really just a siri's of still images but by playing them quickly one right after the other we get the illusion of movement image itself isn't moving harry potter notwithstanding, what is moving is our eye blending a change in position from one frame to the next. By the way I'm grateful to the folks that standard films that's a lake tahoe based firm that specializes in creating snowboard action movies I had a chance to work with them a few years ago and they graciously shared some footage with us it's interesting they make one film a year think about pressure imagine being ah creative director and you get to make one image and the entire company is founded on that one image for the entire year talk about pressure they make one film a year and it happens to be about snowboarding they've done a very nice job of being successful anyway, this is the play head it's skimming across a many timeline the beginning is always on the left. The end is always on the right and we could move around that time line in a variety of ways. The space bar will play a clip space bar will stop the up arrow key moves back one clip a time the down arrow key moves forward one clip at a time the jakey plays backwards in real time cakey stops the elke plays forwards in real time cakey stops tap j twice you go backwards in double time tap l twice you go forwards a double time tap j three times you go backwards a triple time type l three times you go forwards a triple time type j four times you're going backwards that quad speed type l four times you're going forward, said quad speed, you've got all the control you need using just a j k and al keys end for those of you that are not yet satisfied with simply being able to type j or l multiple times hold down j and k at the same time and you go slow motion backwards and k and l a the same time you go slow motion forwards or for the impetuous among you simply grab that little golden play head and drag it where you want or click anywhere in the number bar and you can navigate from point a to point b simply by clicking where you want to play had to go the home key takes you the beginning the end keep takes you to the end so whether you are keyboard centric or whether you are a mouse centric makes no difference. You can get to where you want to go inside premiere and here's the cool part if I go down to the timeline, jay still goes backwards. K stop cell goes forwards thea pinned down arrow keys working the timeline the same way they do in the program monitor. Go to the source monitor why the jakey goes backwards the elke goes forwards the up and down arrow keys go the same place and in all three monitors the right roky takes you forward one frame at a time. The left roky takes you backward one frame at a time. The cool thing is whether you learn to navigate using the the the mouse learned to navigate sorry, whether you learn to navigate in a source window or the program window or the timeline window. Once you learn how to move around in one window, you could move around in all of them so we see the many timeline exists in the program window and in the source window, the timeline of self were actually able to see the clips themselves is in the timeline window and there's one more hidden menu that we're going to touch on, which is the wrench icon. The wrench icon opens up a whole lot of display options and not to panic. We're not going to cover most of these today, but if you're ever wondering what else can I do or what else can I show in this particular window, click on the wrench icon here or the wrench icon here or the wrench icon down here to be able to open up additional display options. Another concept that's different from a still image that video requires is because video is a siri's of images, we have to have a way of addressing or finding those images and that's where time code comes in that's this display right here time code is four pairs of numbers. The first pair of numbers represents hours second pair of numbers represents minutes third pair of numbers represents seconds last pair of numbers represents frames, hours, minutes, seconds and frames now the very first idea that you'd have us this is very much like time of day, and it has many cameras in fact, record time of day as the time code when they shoot provided you've correctly set the time of day on the camera before you started shooting but in actual point of fact there is no relationship between time, code and time of day there could be sometimes there is but there is not necessarily a relationship. Think of time code instead as the numbers on your house there's multiple different houses on your street or apartments in your apartment building but on ly one house only one apartment has that specific number even though if you all share the same street address same thing here a frame an individual frame inside video say this frame right here is identified first by the clip that contains it m c u two camera and second the timecode off that particular frame inside that particular clip which is displayed here this shows us the source clip time code uh sorry over on the left hand side it's it's located a time code one hour let's get it towards less blurry here we go right there one hour, one minute twenty one seconds and two frames. That does mean this clip is an hour long doesn't mean this clip is a minute long just happens to mean that the particular identifying number for this frame is one a one twenty one o two because time code is expressed this time it's easy for us to create durations to calculate how long the clip is by looking at the individual that the difference in duration between the in and the out as I move the arrow keys forward noticed that the frame count increments by one c here let's just do it in close up to do go backwards goes down one frame at a time goes up one frame at a time so I could set a duration that says I just want one second of this shot and it's easy because the locations of the frames air specified in time for premier to find him most of time we don't care about time code at least not in the beginning the same way that you don't care about a particular pixel location inside photo shop you just simply pushed the pixels around until you're happy but there are some things that we can do with time and time code for instance, I could say I want a clip to start here and I wanted to run exactly four seconds I could type in the duration I want that clip to run and it's easy for me to say start here and go for four seconds and because everything inside video is expressed in terms of time it's easy for us to to make those kind of editing decision I do a wide shot beginning with segment where it's four seconds I just hold on the wide shot set the location for four seconds why bother to waste time moving into set it out just said it in say I want to run four seconds edit it down to the timeline it's just faster I don't have enough time to get my work done as it is anything I could do to save time is a good idea another another part of the of the let's see what we've got we've got too many time when we've got the wrench we've got the fit the window oh yes zooming in zooming out we've already established the fact that we can play with the space bar and stop with the space bar if we want to zoom in you type the plus key you want to zoom out type the minus key all right it's kind of cool I used out from time to time, but the one I really like is the backslash key. The backslash key automatically takes whatever is in any window and squeezes it to fit the window. So if I happen to have zoomed in because I want to look at a particular added point where two clips air touching right there and say ok now what's the whole timeline look like he hit the back slash key, but wait a minute what happens if you learned a different software? What happens if if you were working with premier version five or final cut version seven are avid all these keyboard shortcuts air different all this wasted muscle memory, although memorization I've done to figure out what my keyboard shortcuts are lost thiss is one of most brilliant things adobe has ever done, and that includes photo shop they created when you go up to the premier pro men, you see what says keyboard shortcuts, you click on this menu and look what it says right here, right at the top, you can select whether you want to work with premier pro sisi shortcuts or cia six short cuts or media composer five shortcuts or final cut pro seven shortcuts so if you are a dyed in the wool editor using one of these other pieces of software, you don't have to learn anything new, it'll automatically change all of premier's shortcuts to match what you already know this for me was a huge lifesaver because I've spent years editing with final cut seven and I was having the world's hardest time remembering what the keyboard shortcuts were in premier so I changed the final cut seven just to take the fear away and then after a while I said ok, I can do this this makes sense, so then I went back and started to edit with premier default and the ones that I'm teaching today are the premier pro default keyboard shortcuts but we can create justus you can create keyboard shortcuts and other applications we can create keyboard shortcuts inside premiere by going up to premier pro keyboard shortcuts and opens up this panel one more thing I want to I want to talk about on dh talking about the interface because we're going to talk about creating projects and editing in the next segment so jim, I'll let you fire up about two or three questions but I want to talk about configuring the application I have never been able to figure out the best time to talk about preference settings because preference studies of recent watching paint dry or fungus grow it causes tears to flow because it's just boring until you actually need to change preference you don't understand what the heck is going on so I have never really sure if I should talk about the beginning or the end and wherever it is never feels right sort of talk about it now and then we're going to spend our time in the next segment by the way, the next segment the next segment is the one you really want to pay attention to because that's the one we're going toe create a project we're going to import media we're going to review media we're going to edit it to the timeline it's like the heart and soul of the application but until we understand all this basic fundamental stuff the really cool fun stuff just makes no sense anyway preferences just as with photo shop we have mohr preferences than you can shake a stick at and justice with photo shop we can see all the different preference categories over here on the left it would be considered cruel unusual punishment if I tried to go through every one of these settings at one time but there are two tabs that ice specifically want to talk about I want to talk about the general tab and I want to talk about well where to go I want to talk about one other one but I'll think of it in just second the general tempt the general tab is the one where you want to configure the operation of the software and there is no such thing as a bad preference setting but I'll tell you what my settings are premier defaults the standard video transition to thirty frames I changed it to twenty we'll talk about why when you get to transitions I turned if you're starting out turning on all these check boxes is a good idea but if you're a graphic artist and you want to manipulate photoshopped documents inside premiere and you want to be able to have control over different sized graphics you want to make sure the uncheck default scale to frame size what this means is if you pull in a still image that is not the same size as your project sequence you're going to need to adjust its scale but if you're somebody that wants to do what it called ken burns moves where you're doing pan and scan or zooming in zooming out an object you really wanna have this off before you bring in your still image because I'm really focusing on having still photographers and graphics designers work with premier today I need to call this particular setting to your attention the rest of the settings are ok and you can leave them as is oh and the other one I knew I'd get there I just had to sit on it this one's called auto saved this is actually a big deal what auto save does is it will if it's checked automatically save your project now remember the project is that master container that contains links to all of your media and all of your edit decisions it will automatically save your project every fifteen minutes and it will save up to twenty versions of your project if for some reason some catastrophe hits and you've done major damage to your project you can go back into an auto say version and pull up a prior version of your project provided that auto say vis turned on this should always be turned on because the hard disk space that you use to say that that is used to store these projects is trivial compared to the saved anguish of being able to pull up a project if you've accidentally deleted it the rest of the settings we can all discuss over drinks at five o'clock not a problem but general and auto save our two that you want to pay attention to just turn off if you're working was still images turn off default scale to frame size okay, so what we've done now let's see, we've talked about the interface we're going to talk more about it there's lots and lots to talk about but we'll talk about it in the context of actually working with the application the program monitor is what we see what we've created the source monitors where were review each individual clip the timeline is our construction area where we build stuff and the utility windows got lots and lots of different functions depending upon which tab we click across the top of seymour that in the next section jim what I'd like to do is throw the floor open for some questions and then we'll take a deep breath and plunged deep into the heart of premier in the next session which you got that sounds great um I see two for five different time codes on this on your screen what are they how are they different or are we going to get into that later? Well if there's two answers to that question the first answer is you don't care okay and the second answer is you care a lot you khun with a clear conscience ignore time co but successfully for weeks and no harm will befall you okay, okay this time code down here represents the time code of the project notices I move the timeline play head that time code changes this represents the start of my project always starts by default in premiere at zero hours zero minutes zero seconds cyril frames which means that right now my play head is exactly eight seconds into my project so the project time code is displayed here the source code time code is displayed on the left the duration of that shot is displayed on the right. The time code of my project is also displayed in the program monitor and the total duration of my project is displayed over here. So if I'm creating a thirty second commercial noticed that my commercial now runs thirty eight seconds I'm eight seconds too long I've got to figure out a way to take eight seconds out of my thirty second commercial. So this does an instantaneous calculation what my duration is so another way to think of it is yellow represents the time code at the position of the play head and white represents duration time code fantastic, thank you very much and a follow up is the frames is based on the whatever you set your frames per second so it's second and then how many frames exist in that second? Yeah, a movie doesn't actually move I know breaks a lot of hearts to say that, but if you take a strip of film and you hold it up to a light, there is not one moving image in that piece of film what you look at instead as you see each individual frame each individual image called a frame is slightly different than the one before it before after it and our eye perceives that difference and if the flank frames air projected fast enough if we perceive movement now cool trivia back in the old days nineteen lots all can all film was shot with a hand crank camera and the mark of a good cameramen and I'm looking at the camera guys in the studio a great professional group of camera people and not one of them is holding the camera, twisting a can't crank shooting the pictures but in the nineteen knots they did this's why some of the early early early silent movies were best is a comedy because the speed off the camera kept changing is the guy's arm got tired cranking the scene? Well, this is fine for comedies think mack sennett and others of his ilk but wasn't so good for dramas because it was hard to go in for this really touching emotional dramatic scene and a camera is changing speed very bad so producers being concerned with saving money, which is a polite way of saying cheap I wanted to find out what's the absolute slowest frame rate that they could have video of film be shot at so they would spend his little money for film is possible that he came up with a frame rate of eighteen frames a second, so they added motors and tens and twenties, nineteen tens and twenties that would now move film through it a constant eighteen frame a second right until nineteen twenty nine when al jolson's, the jazz singer, came up, they couldn't do good quality audio if the film was only moving at eighteen frames a second cause. The audience stripe was painted on with the film, and it wasn't moving through fast enough to give high fidelity sound needed a plan b. They went back and said what's, the absolute slowest possible frame rate that we can shoot film and get good quality sound came out twenty four frames a second most twenty four frames a second is the best possible image quality you could achieve. No, it was cheap and it was the producers that were by in the film and they were the ones that got to make the call so film then became twenty four frames a second and lasted a twenty four frames, the second forever and ever and ever until video was invented in nineteen thirties in order for video toe work. You have to have a timing pulse at the broadcast transmitter that matches the timing pulse at the end, users tv set the viewers tv set and there's no way to stretch a wire from the broadcast transmitter the end users home. It was supposed to be wireless. How do we have a common timing pulse that would allow a sink to exist synchronization between the broadcast signal received signal. This is the nineteen thirties. We didn't have transistors. We didn't have transitions were invented in the nineteen sixties, so the only thing they could use was the sixty cycle a sea current power company came up with. And so we set television to sink on a sixty cycle pulse where one field half the frame was transmitted every sixteen of a second and a sixteenth of a second later. The second field today created an interlaced frame because they need to have the same sinking pulse between the transmitter and a receiver. This work great until world war two broke up. Now at this point the world was starting to develop and a c electricity was extending out into the broader reaches. But with the destruction that was caused in europe and in japan with the bombing for the war, this gave them a chance to realize that when you transmit high voltage electricity long distances at sixty cycles of second power evaporates off the wire if they slow the pulse rate down from sixty cycles the second to fifty cycles per second, they're able to retain more power transmitted so that there's less line law students of operation of electricity. So when europe rebuilt, they took advantage of that in their whole power system was built on fifty cycles of second because you could transmit power longer with less loss, and you counted sixty cycles per second, which is why television in europe has a fifty cycle clock rate based on their a c power, and japan, which has rebuilt by the u s, has a sixty cycle clock right? Because it used the of the americas and north america's sixty cycle. So the reason we've got both twenty five frame a second and thirty frame a second is based upon clock cycles of a sea power when television was being invented, just in case you wanted to have something to share with people at parties, so we're dealing with with conflicting standards and conflicting frame rates. We've got film a twenty four palate twenty five ntsc a thirty until color was released thirty frame a second television was designed for black and white we couldn't get color transmitted in that sequence, so we had to change the frame rate toe allow three one hundredths of a second time to have color transmitted, so the reason that video in the states is a twenty nine point nine seven is it allows for the three one hundredths of a second of time necessary to transmit the additional color information that becomes necessary to create color signals? So black and white is the true thirty colors the twenty nine ninety seven, which is why we have hd at both sixty frames a second and fifty nine ninety four frames a second which compensates for just history biting us again it's just amazing stuff and now you've got something share with people at parties awesome, thank you very much and I think we have a question in the in studio audience what you got, lance, you know, you were talking about the four second in the source window, you said there was a short cut to grab that or you talk about that later or I'm going to talk about it later you will notice I've not done two things I haven't talked about how to start where a clip starts and ends, which is called it's in and it's out, we haven't talked about howto open clips up, I've started with clips already in the project. What we're going to do starting in a few minutes is we're going to start with a clean slate, we're going to create a brand new project we're going to look at how we review media, we're going to look at how we can set ends announce we'll edit those clips down to the timeline will look at a variety of different ways to edit the clips to the timeline, but I wanted to do that all as a peace, because when you're editing in real life, that all flows naturally, and what I didn't want to do is I didn't want to break it with a break, so I've spent this first session really getting ourselves organized, getting our hardware configured, understanding what hardware we need and why we need it, how much we care about it, getting oriented to the interface and explaining common terms said now we can jump right into the editing itself right after our break and be able to get really productive really fast. So the answer is yes, you'll learn it, but not yet estrela would like to know. Is there a recommended frame rate for video that will be distributed globally online rather than broadcasted specifically in the us or europe? This is such a great question, you wonder what it is the answer you don't care, the web can handle any frame rate that you care to throw it. The web can handle frame rates that even broadcasting cable can't handle broadcasts and cable are principally twenty five or thirty frame a second sometimes twenty four. But the web you could be eighteen, it could be seventy three, you could be six. The web doesn't care because all its submitting all it's sending is a digital stream of files I shoot when I shoot for the web, I shoot a seven twenty p sixty frame, a second image. I'll translate all that a little later, but for right now I shoot sixty frames a second. It gives me great clarity. I don't have motion blur compresses down to virtually nothing gives me the color fidelity and the image fidelity that I like. I definitely get into fistfights every night at bars with filmmakers who feel that twenty four frames is the only way to work, and they're clearly wrong because it's my show so any way you can shoot sixty, fifty, forty eight, twenty four, twenty three, nine, seven, six, whatever you want to shoot, and then you can create whatever format you want, the web totally completely, absolutely agnostic.