Why Work Non-Destructively? with Dave Cross
Working non destructively now, if you've been involved in photo, shopped for very much time at all, you probably hear people saying, well, make sure you're working on destructively and I was always one of those people, too, and then I got into an interesting discussion with a couple of people, and they just sort of said why? And I was like, well, in case you change your mind, so I never changed my mind, okay, so it kind of got me thinking, though, that if you're doing work for a client, then definitely want to work in ways that you have the ability to change your mind. But if you're doing work for yourself like you're just trying to work on a landscape photo, you might look and say, ok, I'm happy with that decision, so on one level you might think so do I really need to work in this non destructive manner? So the more I thought about, I thought there are some other advantage is the ability to change your mind is one of them, but the other really important part of working non destructiv...
ely is it gives us the opportunity to reuse our work elsewhere, so if you have taken a photograph done all this work and at the end you flatten it, then that's a finished product, the end there's no going back, whereas if you use layers and all the various nondestructive minutes we'll talk about, then you have the often, for example, to say, six months later, I remember I did that border on that other photo, I can just drag it over and tweak it instead of building it from scratch. So the whole kind of repurpose ing reusing part to me is a huge advantage of working non destructively that a lot of people overlook because the more people I talk to them or I realize most people when they hear nondestructive, they think in case I change my mind and that's a part of it, but that's a small part to me, because now I'm finding more and more times ryan building up a document where each layer is an effect that I know is I'm creating it it's like a template or it's, a reusable effect that I could just drag into other documents that of building it from scratch each time, and some people would argue that, but all you're saving is a minute or two, okay times, however, many photographs I'm working on that adds up and as photographers in particular, the most common thing, which seems odd to say on a photo shop week, is let's spend a little time in pot as possible and photoshopped because we make most of our money from the photographs, not what we do in photo shop, so the more we can do to save time even fits a minute here and there that adds up over the course of the day. And the fact that the other really important reason is maybe you do some effect to a photograph and you print it out and you have it hanging on your wall somewhere and a year later someone says that's great, I love you do that to my photo and you have no idea how you did it. Whereas if you have the layered version you can almost reverse engineer and look at and go oh yeah, I did this filter and I applied this adjustment because it's all still there if all you have is wonderful photo dot j peg, you got nothing you got no way of you have it's total guess so. That's really the idea here in my mind of why we want to work, not destructively. So in this class we're going to talk about kind of concurrently two things how we can best work, not destructively and always reminding here's an example of why this is useful so that's kind of the plan for the day so let's, just start off with a couple of examples of the whole non destructive way and initially, one of things I like to do is show the kind of the two ways, though the not so or the let's say the more destructive way that I would suggest you don't use it still works, but it doesn't give you as many options, so for example, I want to add kind of a vignette effect to this photograph and one of the ways I could do this, and it would work would be to create a layer and then fill it with black and then make a marquee selection. At this point, I want this edge to be soft, so now I have to use this command called feather, and as I said in previous classes, this is a dialog box it's not changed in the entire history of photo shop it's just a dialog box with a number, and somehow you have to know what number to put in, which is totally ludicrous because no one ever does even people go, I'm going to use eighty six like they know, but they really don't that's just total guesswork and they've tried different numbers because there's no preview there's no help in any way. All you do is you click ok, and even then the preview just means that box now has slightly rounded corners we don't really see what's going to look like until you hit delete to get rid of those pixels and now I can see how soft the edges are. And it's it's okay, it's not bad, at least it's on a separate layer. So that's a little bit of bonus points for the non destructive nature there, but everything else about it is non editable. I can't go back if I save this and come back a month later, I can't say I wish I hadn't feathered as much too bad if it's the wrong size on, maybe I can tweak it a little bit, but the problem is, although this works, it really hasn't given me ah, whole range of possibilities, so instead I would take a different approach and one of the things I think it's important note about this whole work non destructively concept is very often it will actually take a few more steps to set it up. But then you're done and you can reuse it, so some people say, but it was quicker do it that other way well, quicker, but more permanent. So in some cases, like this one, it takes maybe an extra step to create the same look, but in a way that's, very editable and reusable, so the method I would use is to use a curves adjustment layer. Now actually let me take a step back for a second just to before I jump in there so we're going to get back to this venue anything but let me address this issue of adjustment versus adjustment layers any time you go under this menu anything under here is destructive because you're applying it directly the background layer now some people would say, but if I duplicate the background layer first okay that's better but that's takes up more memory do it that way so all of these adjustments are very permanent so whatever I might do if I go to curves and make some dramatic adjustment that I decide I want to do and I not really paying attention and I kind of record when I click ok? You can see my background layer has changed now if I were to close and save this, that would be my permanent photograph hopefully I have some other backup to some degree with, like an original raw file, but if I don't that's pretty much it needles to say in this case I can undo right now, but if I hadn't done that would be very hard to go back to curse and say let me adjusted you can almost see it more clearly in levels if I really over adjust something in levels now it makes that effect as soon as I go backto levels it looks like this any time you see levels with a hits to grand that looks so flat is basically telling you, there's nothing there there's nothing to work with, so you can't just pull it back the way it was and say, let me fix that. So any time you use thie those options under this menu, you're playing with fire because you're making a permanent change. Now someone asked me once does that mean you never use these? And I hesitate to say never, but an example where I might is if I open an old photograph that I'd scanned in and I need to restore it, the chances are if I apply levels, I'm not going to want to go back to the old faded out version. So in cases like that, you could make a bit of a call of doing it directly the photograph, but generally speaking, I use adjustment layers instead because the difference is when we go to one like levels and I make that overly bad adjustment. One of the things I always point out in this adjustment dialog box or panel is there's one important thing that's not there and that's an ok button you never click ok to say, apply that you just leave it, just leave it as is so this adjustment layer is almost like it's constantly in preview you do not have to worry about oh, well, I've made a permanent change because you haven't you can see if I were to say this and close it and reopen at tomorrow, it would look just like this so I could look at and go that was a bad decision. Maybe let me put it back like this and I still not clicking, okay? I'm just leaving it there, so one of the huge advantages of adjustment layers is by nature, they're non destructive because they're constantly editable, you can always go in and say, what if I do this? What if I do that and make a change that way? So on our example of this hole, the vignette effect around the outside, I'm gonna add a curves adjustment layer and the way the curves if you take the top of this and start to drag it down, it starts to look darker and darker and darken. If I go far enough, it'll almost look like I filled it with black so the equivalent of what I did before. Now I want to do that same edge and here's where it gets a little bit tricky because the adjustment layer has a mask and the mask is currently saying when the mask is filled with white is saying let that the effects of that adjustment air show entirely so the whole thing looks dark I want this middle part not to be affected by the adjustment layer so I fill that with black so the way the the mask works wherever you fill with black gonna hide the effects so now I have ah black edge around the outside but it's not very then, yet thievery blurry like and what I used to do at this point in previous rooms of photo shop was apply a blur to the mass to make the edge soft. The problem with that method is it's now that's added the one element of destructive because when you blur a mask you can't go back later and say let me deep blue if I or less less blurriness or there's no command to undo blur so one of the best things that came out in the last few versions of photo shop is this properties panel and part of it is a separate little panel called masks so what that allows me to do is to work on the mask in certain ways and one of the ways I can work on it look right here you see it says feather but the difference is this is not a little box that pops up and ask you to type in some amount and click ok it's a slider so I can say how about this much or how about this much and wherever you leave it once again no ok button. So when you leave it that way just means ok that's the way I have left it I say that as a photoshopped file the next time I open it, if I look at him go that's a little too dark or that it's a little too feathered or it's the wrong size, all of those things I can change because I produced it in a way that's very editable. So let's, look at the options that I could do to this let's say we'll just pretend I won't bother saving it reopening but we'll pretend it's now a week later and bought enough we're all wearing the same clothes and everything which is but anyway, now I want to edit it so I look at and say, ok, well, first of all, I think the edge is a little too dark for my liking, so I double click to go back to the curves adjustment layer and you'll see it it's right where I left it so I can go in here and make further adjustments to it and make any kind of tweets. I just did it completely their home second, okay, my panels just a little too small for me to see it here area so you see there's where I right where I left it, so if I don't want to quite so dark, I start to pull it up and as I do see how it's having effect on the photograph. So I say there, I think that's more the kind of level of darkness that I want. Then I look at the softness of the edge and say, is that too soft? Maybe? Well, now, as soon as I click on the mask, it switches to the mass panel and shows me you left the feathering at one fifteen point seven, which was bad, it should have been point. Here we go, one twenty three point six would be much better, but the whole point is it doesn't matter because you can say, well, maybe I should have that's really bad, but that's, the whole point is you can experiment and to say, ok, I like that without even looking at the numbers in the other feather command, you have to enter a number, which is for most people, total guesswork here, you're seeing it, you move the slider and it's live, one of my friends who also teaches photo shop. Whenever he sees a command like this, that doesn't have an ok, he calls his undue on a slider. Because any time you can just go right there or over here and you never have to worry about a well I'm making a commitment at this point so that reminds me to pause and tell you one of my favorite comments ever from one of my favorite photo shop instructors ever julianne cost who was awesome we ever get chance to see julianne she's fantastic and she has a really funny sense of humor not your kind of typical very kind of dry but clever humor and one time she was I was watching with the back of the room and she was teaching a beginner's class on layers and she said and she just said it kind of in passing which was awarded to me maybe even more funny she said one the reasons I use layers I'm just afraid of commitment and then she just kept going but I was like that's pretty funny because that's for a lot of people that is their worry is like I got a click ok? And then once they click ok, I'm done here we're not clicking okay to anything we're just saying leave it like this so in this case the other option so remember we got three things going on here we've got the adjustment layer which is making the edge is dark we've got the feathering on the mass which is making the edges soft and this is also the mask it's just a rectangle that's filled with black that we happened to have made the edge of soft but if I use free transform, I can also change the size of this and say maybe I want a vignette that looks more like this so even that step is not permanent you could decide the position, the size, the edge and then as long as I say this is a psd and you're going to hear me, so say that so much time this morning going to start throwing things at me but it's really key? This doesn't work unless you preserve all this by saving it as a psd file because of that now, for example, I could say, well, I have another photo that I think I might want to look kind of the same instead of me going, how did I do all that? Instead, whenever you have more than one document open and they include layers you khun drag and drop from one document to the other and unfortunately you can't drag from the layers panel, which would be nice if you could. But it doesn't matter because as long as the adjustment layer is the active layer and you can tell that because it's kind of highlighted there, I just clicked anywhere in the document and I'm actually going to move or copy to this one now this is a very different size photographs what first that looks like it hasn't worked but that's because this photograph is such a different size that the mask is the wrong proportion now but that's ok, I have the mass highlighted I just press commander control t for free transform it shows me yes indeed your mask is quite large and here's a little added bonus tricked by the way I wish this just happened by default, but it doesn't when you hit free transform on a layer that's bigger than you can see the handles air out there somewhere and you can't see them and wants most people do is they go through mounds and mounds amounts amounts amount amount until they can find it instead just do this commander control t and then instantly command control zero and it automatically scales the window to show you the handles so any time I'm using free transforming something large like this and now I just automatically go manti commands your because I know I need to see those handles instead of me going where are they? This just doesn't really quickly so now at this point I could scale down this little vignette box. Now one of things you'll notice by the way is while you're scaling, the soft edge goes away to help you see what you're doing and as soon as you hit enter then it comes back again so in this case I'm thinking ok, the other thing I need to change is the feather looks a little bit too much now given the size of this photograph you see how fast that was to redo it instead of start all over again okay, I've got to move the curves down to here and make no I want to look the same so what amount is it this way you're just going? I already have something there just drag it onto a different photograph so any time you can use adjustment layers by nature they are the definition of non destructive because you can't click ok the only thing I could do to make an adjustment layer permanent is merge it on top of the layer you're working on and I said the other day I joked about flattened being photoshopped f word merges only a slightly bit better because if you merge layers you're still throwing away information so one of the questions that that comes up often when I talk about this topic is people say, well does that mean you never emerge layers together? You never flatten and I would say yeah, I don't I mean I sometimes do but what I do end up with is I end up with a flattened version of my document so I still have my multi layered photoshopped file which is that master file that has all the layers that I need and then I do save as and that becomes my version without layers but that way if your client or your mom or someone says can you just change this one thing you know you could go back to the layered version tweak it and then save it again so if I had my hard drive here full of photos you would see without exception and every folder there's a bunch of raw files that have captured in camera there's a bunch of psd versions and have all the layers and there's a folder called jpeg which is the final and I always put final in air quotes because it's never really completely final because I still have those two other levels of control to go back to and anyone who is not taking advantage is to me it's very simple you're working too hard because it means you're starting from scratch every time and people start it's like when ben was teaching this class on actions I know one of things he talked about is that people think allah actions but then they end up doing the same operation every day three times a day so if you record in action once it's going take a little longer but from then on you f seven done this is kind of the same concept if you do the work up front then we need to re use it you already know it's there now there's a couple of different thoughts here one of them is as you're working like on this version here that has that original vignette on it if I save this it has a psd it means I have this reusable element in it the other approach that some people take and this isn't I think an interesting concept would be to build a document for the express purpose of creating reusable effects in other words instead of saying I need to add a vignette to this photo just take any old photo and add a vignette layer and then another late special edge layer or something and you say that document as edge effects or something and then when you need one you just look through there's always use that one and dragging into your other documents so you can either do it on a project by project basis or look at it as an opportunity to say I'm going to build up a library of reusable looks that I can drag on to a different photograph and then tweak were necessary if you're doing maybe an album you might want every photograph have the same edge treatment so then just drag it over and you're done if you want some variety then you might do in such a way that each one is slightly different so adjustment layers I have the benefit of being again very editable and reusable and if you're not doing effects like a vignette, if you're just saying, I'm just going to add this adjustment to improve the look of my photograph, there are still going to be settings in there that you will create, and even by dragging that adjustment layer into a different photograph, it just means you already that will drag with those settings in it, so adjustment layers have that built in. When you move them over, they will automatically preserve whatever the settings you have, so that's a little bit unjust winters, and we'll come back to a lot of these things throughout the rest of the class, but I want to kind of touch on a few key concepts that I use all the time, the other one, and this is to me, there's been a lot of things in the history of photoshopped that have dramatically changed the way people use photo shop. And, of course, for most people, looking back in the history of photoshopped photo shop, three was the first version had layers, and that was like this whole new thing await, weaken, do things and put them on these things called layers, and now we all take that for granted, but the first two versions of photo shop there were no layers who did everything on the background, so you had to really think about, in fact, I used to teach a photo shop class photo shop one we did in effect that was just putting read text with a black drop shadow and I'm not kidding you it took twenty seven steps and if you missed out one stat that was like call because you couldn't added the text it was like painting text on then you had to figure out a way to make anyway so yeah, so anyone who complains about this text tool is slow and like no it's not it's, not at all this's actually great, but so there's all these things in the history of photo shop that while layers is a huge improvement and believe it or not it took the photo shop five toe have text you could actually edit before that you would use the text to him a little dialogue box you click ok and then it was just pixels that looked like text. So there's been all these events and to my mind one of the other big ones was smart filters because before smart filters you would go to apply a filter and you'd have to almost create your own backup plan. So for example, I want to add some effect of this photograph with a filter first of all I even before smart filters I never would have done into the background layer because for the same reason is using adjustments directly you can't change your mind so if I just went here, for example and said let's, just add a gaussian blur, I wouldn't want to do this because I'm actually blurring my photographs as I click ok there's really no going back other than undoing so what I used to do was duplicate the background layer before the introduction smart filters the letter j on my keyboard was almost worn off because I press command j so many times or control j to duplicate the layer that that key I was worried it was going to fall off my keyboard because that was just standard operation open document duplicate the back because that way you would always preserve it, so then I would apply a filter to this so that's better, but I'm still faced with the problem that I have to click ok, so I pick some number go let's blurt this much and then you click ok and now I just have a blurry layer sitting on top of a non blurry layer, so now I have to work harder and more importantly, perhaps if I say this and then look at it tomorrow go why they blurred that much again. There is no command that says go back, you know, I'm sure you've all heard of the history function and photoshopped I've always suggested that we think of history as current history or today's history because if you close a document there's no history anymore right now there's history because this document still open so I could step back and go oops! I shouldn't have blurred that much, but it seems like save this I'm done so I don't have the option of going oh let me make it less blurry so instead the differences we have this wonderful thing called smart filters and when people asked me the question do you always use smart filters? I don't even has a yes without exception because of the way it works so here's that works or so we need to convert for smart filters normally filters are not smart, they're dumb, they just do whatever you tell them too, and they go ok, I'm done now so convert for smart filters turns this layer into this thing called a smart object my next class I go really into smart object this is this car going to touch the surface up, but the important thing is what this does is now when I go to apply a filter unless use gaza and blur as an example and I'm going over blur it to make a point that unlike the first time when I clicked okay, just saw a layer that was blurry look at the difference here, the layers blurry but then there's a thing that says smart filter gaussian blur so it's right there it's part of the layers panel is the blur so once again if I say this is a psd the necks time I open it will look just like this or and or I can continue working on it because it's the way it's set up so let's look more closely at what's going on here. First of all, you'll see there's a little icon beside gaza and blur that means I could just say never mind so you have filters you can turn on and off completely so when you're going through that kind of experimental phase off, what will it look like this or that way that's the part of the reason is now weaken at least turn it off turn on which in the old days I love saying that because it was like two years ago, whatever three years ago the old days would have had that duplicate layer and turn that layer on and off. But the difference was we still couldn't edit the settings here where it says the name of the filter you double click on it and it reopens the filter and says, do you want to change it that's huge because that means instead of living with a well, I blurted this much now aiken blurred even more or blurred less because it's alive editable blur as opposed to a one shot deal so that's, why? I think this is so huge because the biggest challenge most people faced with filters and have no idea what settings to use. And once I use them if ten minutes later I go I don't really like that anymore. It's too late because that was ten steps ago. And while theoretically you could go back in history, you would lose all those other steps to this way. I can add more things on top of this. But the settings of the filter is always right there ready to be changed and it's not only today, it's, two weeks from now or a year from now. Because saving his psd means this is one of things that's there so that's. Pretty interesting. What also makes it interesting is this big white box here. This is a mask for the filter. And what this means is we can adjust after the fact where we want the filter to be applied. And again the days before smart filters, I would have had to make a selection and apply to filter toe on ly those pixels. And if I changed my mind oh, well, it's too late here. This is a mass that works just like any maskin photoshopped, particularly a layer mask where, because it's white the filter is applied to the whole photograph if I decide for example maybe it's a little much and I don't want it showing on her face I would take my brush tool just do a quick check of settings I'm goingto kind of go a little bit overboard let's just make sure it's a nice soft edged brush to begin with bigger and wherever I go paint with black you'll see I'm removing the filter from those areas so now I've got this big black blob which is the technical term we used for painting on a mask is the big black blob and that means wherever I paint I'm saying take the filter away and if I go back now and make this even blurrier you see the mask is still preserved if I lower it down whatever I want and that's what's great about this is that at no point are you finished because you can edit everything some people would say the downside to this is you're never finished because you can just keep experimenting and playing let me try this and that's the hard part of sometimes you have to turn off okay stop that looks good but the cool part about this is we've got all these options so let's do this I'm going toe take this layer masking this fill it with white again so you can see one other aspect of this so so far we've talked about we can show and hide the filter we can double click on to change the settings we can paint on the mask to decide where we want the filter be applied and over the side here there's this other interesting little symbol, which, in total, totally typical adobe fashion you would not have any clue what that does just by looking at it because it's like, ok, there's, too little lines with triangles, which apparently means blending options. So this is if you think about how layers work, layers haven't opacity setting, and they have blend modes. Now, so does your filter. So you can say, I bet this filter might look interesting if I just lower the opacity. So now I'm getting this, taking the blurry layer of the blurry filter excuse me and making that partially see through to let the original photographs show through. In the past, what we would have done was make blurry layer on top regular photo on the bottom, make the layer see through, but then you still couldn't edit the blurriness and that's where this is so brilliant, because I can now that I've lowered the opacity and say, well, now, let me go back and see what it looks like. If I change how much it's blurry, and then on top of that, we have blend modes. So different blend most are going to do different effect, so I'm just playing here. I don't have any plan in mind, but you see is I lower the opacity and changed overlay that's kind of a cool look, and then I go back to say, well, what happens if I blurt a little more? Well, that look better worse, and one of the things that's great about smart filters, one of my favorite terms that some people use when they're using photo shop is when they talk about having a happy accident, where they're going for one look, and then they move a slider kind of go, oh, that's kind of cool didn't expect that, and you get that all the time with this because you don't know, I mean, I I know a little bit about what blend most do, but sometimes I'm pleasantly surprised when I go, oh, that's kind of going to multiply mode with the motion blur and this opacity interesting, and when I click ok, even though it doesn't show it here because you can't see the settings it's preserved, but also preserved is the original settings. So if I decide at one point, never mind let's put the opacity back up, two hundred changes the normal I still can't. So this is what I was referring to before I said imagine you've done this of effect and you printed it out and another client comes in six months I insist I want a look just like that you're like, you know how I did that now you just open it up and look at it and they will tell you you change the opacity of this you had a setting a bad now the other part of this is if say, we let's pretend that we love this effect is that's kind of cool? I kind of like it, but let's pretend we just aren't so in love with it we want this same effect on the other photograph that I have over well unfortunately, you cannot just copy the smart filter hopefully in another version of photo shop that I know nothing about that might happen, but instead what I have to do is drag the whole thing so I take this whole photograph and drag it on to my other image and it doesn't matter at all things like scale and size does that's going to go away in a second so I have to do is take this background layer and converted for smart filter so it's ready to accept a smart filter and then I just go let's put this right here and then I take this layer and throw it away and now inside here inside here ariel is the smart filter with whatever settings are on there so unfortunately you cannot simply copy the smart filter from one photo another but the next best thing is you just copy the photograph, convert the other layer into a smart object, dragged the filter over, then delete the one you copied so it takes an extra step but again compared to the alternative of starting all over going what settings that I use how much capacity was it? It doesn't matter because it's all there but much like when we talk about things like presets and photoshopped this I kind of view almost like a preset because when I dragged over this filter smart photo from another document it's still all there so I can still look and go wow I think I might want to blur a little more or change the blend mode to this or lower the opacity asses all preserved everything is if I wanted to I could put it all the way back to one hundred percent opacity normal mode and start all over again if I wanted to but part the whole idea of this is that when you drag over that smart filter it's bringing with it all the settings so it's a great way to explore and and figure things out but then once you if you do have a siri's of photographs it's so much easier to drag over and just do that quick little trick of copy and delete versus every time what what I used to do. It seems funny now to say this, but I used to have this pad by my desk. I'd be gaza ambler seventeen, capacity fifty three, right? I'm saying that because I know we all did that at some point, because I don't want to forget that now you don't have to, because when you drag it over, it brings those numbers with it so it's all there so you don't have to worry about how much did I blur? And more importantly, or as importantly, on some photographs because of scale will be like in this case, I need to blurt not so much, but now you can, because you just move them. So to my mind, that's why I started this whole discussion by saying that's, why, I think smart filters air so amazing because such a time saver, you think about the options of what it gives you compared to the alternative and that's, one of my become one of my favorite phrases when I talk about trying to work as efficiently as possible is reminding people compared to the alternative. Because you might look at something go that's a little fast no actually when you think about the alternative, how long would take you to look at that pad and go fifty three seventeen all that kind of stuff this just is a huge time saver so when people again asking the question do you smart filters all the time? Yes, not really I mean sometimes I don't but very rare like find us opening a photograph that is ready to go I just want to sharpen it then I probably wouldn't do a smart filter to sharpen because I know these air the scharping settings that I used when I print to my printer so making it smart in that case wouldn't really offer any great advantage you know what? I probably do it anyway because if I happened open to more photos too sharp and I could just go drag instead of scharping them same way so it's a personal thing from that respect, but I would say that winning time someone says should I always do something a certain way like should I always use smart filters? My response is you should always consider it you might not do it every single time because of the circumstances, but you should all at least think should I'm making this a smart filter and I'll bet you a lot of the time the answer will be I should because it's going to be easier it's going to be more flexible, it's going to be more reusable so there's a whole bunch of things we can do with smart filters that really make life a lot more interesting. So let's, look at one other example, this is a slightly different kind of a case, but to show you an interesting effect that you can do that, you could have always done before and that uses a filter, which is kind of cool, but it always had a certain point we have felt like a well, I can't change my mind, so I took this. One of things I love to do with photographs is that I'm a photo shop guy that also takes photos as a photographer, and very often I'll take photos thinking that that's kind of cool, I might do something with that. I didn't take this because I thought it was a great standalone photo, but when I saw this wall of stone, I thought I can almost imagine something painted on there. I don't know what exactly, but I'm going to capture it, thinking ahead that that would be a cool kind of a place to put something on, and I think that's one of the fun things about forward shop is doing that is taking photos, thinking ahead that I might use it someday so one of my, uh thoughts was putting text on here make it look like someone painted text on here so one of my son's friends was getting married and he asked when he was proposing to his girlfriend he said could you help me do some kind of cool thing? You know it would look really need unusual because he knew I was like a photo shop guy and I remember this once I check this out I open this farce that imagine I'll make it look like you whisked your life to profess your love for her on the side of the mountain and he was like, ok, so clearly I was much more enthusiastic about her than he was but so I thought, ok, so I want to set this up in such a way that I can make it look like there's some something going on here so I was going to make up some names okay? So we'll just do it like this all right? So we need this to be a whole lot larger and now one of the lessons I learned the hard way is when you say to someone I will do this for you and they don't use photo shop don't let them watch because in my mind this was just step one is like, well, that doesn't look very real and I'm like, ok, go away I'll tell you when you can come back because this is like not good that you're going to sit here and go really like because fair enough I mean right now it looks like jack is an extremely extremely good painter because he hung from a rope and painted in like helvetica or something which is you know right away it doesn't look very realistic so let's change this to something I think I have on here which is a little more and righty so at least it's better but still looks a little font ish so whenever you have a type player my opinion is as in that whole nondestructive method you want to preserve the ability to edit the type because the worst thing in the world to me would be to do some effect and not to do it you would lose the ability to edit the type so one of the problems is with any filter whatever you do it's going to give you this message that says this type player must be rast arise before proceeding rast arising is also a close second behind flatten as a bad bad bad bad bad thing but the problem is it's and this is the worst thing to me is it's actually prompting me to click ok to say yeah okay pasteurized type no there should be a no thank you I'd rather make a smart filter button right here because that's what we should do is they cancel that and convert for smart filters now what it does on the surface is it looks like my type player has been turned into pixels, but it's not the text is preserve and I'll show you that in a second so by converting for a smart filters, it means now I can do things with this text that I could normally do. But inside of this a thing called a smart object it's preserved the original type so I could go back and edit it, which is very interesting, so the other thing that lets me do is when I go to free transform I now have the option that I normally don't with type of this little button up here it's called warp when I click on that I can now actually just sort of push and pull my type to make it look a lot less like a font and kind of fit the shape of where I want and when I hit enter it will apply it because it's a smart filter even this believe it or not is editable because usually free transform once you're free transformed something you're done if I go back to free, transform and click the war but you see it it's right where I left it so even this is an advantage of the whole smart filter idea is things like warping you can go back afterwards and say what I want to do but what I ultimately want to do with this photograph is I want it really kind of distorted, so it looks like it's following the cracks and crevices more, and the filter we used to do that is called displace in our to use the displaced filter, we have to create something called a displacement map, which is basically the photograph that you want to use to distort the techs, and you have to do it is a separate document, so what we do is we take this background layer, and I just duplicated into a new documents instead of just going duplicate layer this command duplicate layer lets me take that background photo put into its own separate document because it for this filter toe work, it has to be separate. You can't just do it within the same document, that's just the way this filter works. So ultimately you end up with a separate, just basically a copy of your background image. If I looked at this at one hundred percent, you can see there's a lot of detail in this, which normally is great in a photograph. But the way the displaced filter works is that uses darks and lights to kind of distort the text, and if there's, too much texture and too much information, the texas starts looking really can't even read anymore, so one of the little tricks we normally do is to use on this one filter, like what I want to do here, maybe a slight surface blur actually let's use speckle these speckles a cool little filter because it's almost like a quick little filter filter that you can just apply and see how you can still kind of see the cracks and crevices. But a lot of that surface detail is kind of getting lost, so at this point, I just saved this file and you don't have to do this. But I have is such a bad habit of losing my files that I just call it some names like map because it's going to ask you, where is your displacement map? Technically, don't you could call it anything you want? I just call it that out of habit, so I don't lose where I put it. And once you've done that, you can close this document so that's the necessary set up for the next step of using this displaced filter. So here's, my text, I've made it smart, so now I can go filter, distort, displace, and this is another filter has been around for a long time, and one of the problems or challenges of it is once again it just gives you numbers and says, how much would you like to displace? I mean I've used this for many years and I still look at it go ten forty sixty I mean there's really no easy way answer to say so and there's no preview button so in the past before smart filters you try some numbers if it didn't work you go undo undo one doing do to get to back to a certain point now because it's a smart filter I can edit the settings so I'm going to try a number which I think is probably too high but let's just see twenty five twenty five it's going to say where is your map there it is and now you see how it's distorted my text to kind of follow the cracks and crevices and I turn this off you can see there is the original type and now it's kind of distorted I feel like that's just a little much because I know the next step what it's gonna look like so I'm gonna double click and go back and this is again the smartness of the smart filter is I can say well maybe let's try a little less twenty and doesn't have to be there in both have to be the same you could say fifteen twenty five depending on the photo but the beauty of this is now you can try that in the past you couldn't be cut what you could but it was like every time you undo and start over again so here you click ok, we do the layer the map so that looks a little better to me it's a little bit closer but it still doesn't look terribly realistic to me like it's been painted on so if we tried a blend mode like, say, overlay now it's starting to look a little better although it looks like he painted this ten years ago is only telling her now, which is a little creepy so that might not send the right kind of message so like I've been stalking you for now so if I duplicate this layer here's an interesting fact of when you have a layer with a blend mode when you duplicate the layer it only duplicates the layer but it duplicates the blend mode, so I have overlay and another overlay, so if I lower the opacity of this just about maybe there how it's kind of looks like it's actually following the little cracks in the rocks and everything else because this is a copy of the smart object that text the text can be edited and they'll both change because they're clones of each other. So if I decide I want to edit the text if I edit either one of them, you'll see in a second they both update so back to our story I showed my son's friend this and I was like, so what do you think and I guess he had never actually seen the words written down before because he could almost sense the temperature of his feet getting colder by the second, as he was looking at it was like, wow, that's who yeah, and I was like, well, just so you know, I do have the option if you wish to that aiken kind of edit this when I double click on the type layer, it opens up a separate window with the editable type so I can change this and kind of changed the message a little bit and you'll see it updates or if he just freaked out completely week and just, you know, change the message, but the and the whole point of this is this is another form of template because if you do all this work once, then if you decide I really liked that look, I want to use it for some other thing with different type. You just change the type and all that other those other settings are applied and what's one of the interesting things about smart object and again, we're gonna get in this a lot more on my next class that really talks about tomorrow. More detail is you have to think of this type player now is a container when you converted to a smart object using that, commanders said convert for smart filters it put that text in a container that so it's protected so I want to edit the text or the contents of this I have to double clicked open this separate little window that opens to edit the content now it's important to think of this as edit the content not just edit the text because right now the content of this smart filter is text but I could decide I want to totally change things up here and find some other graphic maybe take this bringing in here and I'm probably breaking some important u s rules but inside canadian I'm going to do it anyway because normally you would not want to do this to an american flag of cutting off part of it but the purpose of demonstration on lee you can see when we do this now our flag is put as if it's been painted onto the rock so it doesn't have to be text it could be anything and the point of that whole demonstration is I started with text did all the work to say displace it but now that I look at I think maybe they look better if I have used something else and replace it with a graphic if I don't like the graphic I still have all those options like warp because maybe I don't want the top of the flag right up there anymore and I want it more like this so nothing is warning bad pompon coming cast in stone because everything could be edited. How much were you warp? What blend mode reviews, how much you displays all those things can be edited very easily. So one of the things that kind of recurring themes here is when you do things in this non destructive method, even though photo shop doesn't have an option that's called savers template, it's, almost like you are, because when you say this is a ptsd, everything in here can be replaced with something else, or can be updated or reused. So that's, one of the reasons when we talked right upfront about why work non destructively, is for this kind of reason that is going to take you a bit of effort to get to some end result, but that result really isn't the end, it's just on opposite day to say, well, now I can do other things to it. So let's, look at another couple of examples of this. Here is another idea that I think is important. A lot of people talk about compositing now as a way of creating photographs that didn't exist, so take a photograph of a person, maybe, and then compose them onto a new backgrounds, a very popular thing for photographers, especially those photographers that are trying to distinguish them from a guy who bought good camera and is now offering his services for next to nothing because he has a camera and light room, he khun b a photographer my belief is that if you add photoshopped into the mix and you can do things that that guy with camera can't, you'll have product offerings that the average person can't and that's where photoshopped becomes important. So one of the reasons I think compositing continues to be very popular is you can take a photograph of person on top of in front of any old background and do some really cool thing with them standing in a different country or whatever it is in this case, I have two photographs show you first here. This was the the portrait idea, and I deliberately wanted to be kind of dark, but as you'll see in a moment, trying to select someone who has dark hair off a dark background is somewhat challenging. And then I went to a local soccer field and I deliberately did out of focus so that it had a feeling of depth of field because it was in perfect focus. It wouldn't have been looked as realistic, probably so that took a bit of experimenting, but I the hardest part was I'd take off manual or automatic focus because we kept trying to help him like no stop I want you to focus here even though there's a soccer net back there but the key to this kind of work is both of these are raw files so whenever you work with a raw file it starts off like this and you can make adjustments and then hit opening and I showed this before but I want to reiterate something it's important to see the difference so let's do this normally we make some adjustments put the exposure a little higher and we had open image when it comes into photoshopped it just comes in as a standard layer end of story so if there's anything about this you don't like you pretty much have to either make the changes in photo shop using adjustment layers which is ok but I'd much rather have access to the original raw information and by nature you don't by default it doesn't happen so I made a long time ago when this came out a very important change which I've always kept this way it's right down here at the bottom where it just looks like information where it saying adobe nineteen ninety eight sixteen bit blah blah blah this to me should be a button that's much more obvious you should click on it and it should be called workflow options because well it's called workflow options why it's not just a button called that no one knows and when I mentioned that to dhobi once they just kind of went which is always interesting response from your software developer this goal what that means exactly but this is kind of important causes worry pick like the size of how big we wanted to be but probably most importantly to me is this option that says open and photo shop as smart objects the fact that it's plural means from now on always open every raw file is the smart object and I'm perfectly ok with that because here's what it lets me do I make some adjustment I got to go overboard as I usually do so you can see when I hit open it comes into photoshopped the difference is there's a little symbol on the corner of this layer which means it has a live connection back to camera so I can getting time double click on it it goes back to camera and say that was actually bad let's put it more like this so that's for a background photo that's just kind of nice tohave where really makes a difference is when we get our other photograph which is our soccer player so I'm gonna do it this way there's many ways you could do this I could open the document and then drag it over one the reasons I like using many bridge as a panel is there's my other raw file of the soccer player if I just drag him in because it's a raw file it first opens in camera raw now, ultimately, I want him toe look that kind of dark look with that dark lighting, but I'm looking right now going, yeah, good luck trying to to see where his hair ends, so what I do is I take advantage of the editable, non destructive nature of this camera smart object concept and say, well, let's, put it up to here even though it looks bad, I'm looking right there, I'm looking the top of his head, I'm not looking anywhere else because I know I'm temporarily adjusting the photograph to make the job of my selection tools easier once I'm finished, then I'll put it back the way I want so that's that recurring theme of lycan adjustment layer you can over a just to help you see what you're doing, and then once you're finished, put it back. So here all I'm thinking of is let's make the job of my selection tools easier, so I click ok? It says, how like, how big would you like him to be? So we're gonna position him and maybe scaling down just a bit like that, okay, so now I want to start working on selecting him and I would take my quick selection tool because any time you have edges by the way, I've always felt that even though it's called a quick selection tool you should think of it as thie edge detection tool because if it sees edges it will find them so I have to do is just kind of drag around and it keeps adding mohr enough to hold on any keys or anything and I just kind of try and get as close as I can here in here in this part by the way I had to get special permission from the government can do for him to wear a canada sure because he's american but I was able to do that in some circles have known for wearing canada shirts so I have many, many of them and I happily loan him for this because he's not really a soccer player okay? So let's see how we're doing there okay? So looks like we're getting close so now I would go to refine edge and one of things you have to kind of I don't know what the word is learned to accept is overlooked the fact that he's way over exposed because we're going to change that right now we're just worried about how it is everything else look so I go to on layers so I can see the background photo and I'm just really looking at things like his hair and I might try and just get this a little better around the outside something like that and then I would tell it one of the options in refine edges what do you want to create? I want to create a layer mask which means hide everything else so when I click ok, now I have very poor looking composite because of the lighting it just looks wrong. Otherwise it doesn't look too bad in terms of how he's extracted but it's he's way too bright compared to the background well, remember this is this camera smart objects. If I double click on it, it goes right back to hearing is ok, but let's put him or like this maybe add some clarity environments look a lot more dramatic click ok and it's gonna update and now it looks muchmore in context to the background and if I wanted to, I could say, well, you know what? I might also change this one because I can make it look like it's a later in the day so now both layers each one of them is a camera smart object with a direct link back to camera at any time I want as long as here's the broken record part as I say, this is a psd I continue to do this, so if I printed out and kind of go yeah it's actually a little the backgrounds to dark now double click on that tweak it a bit, but when people talk about compositing and I see them struggling, trying to select hair, I'm thinking boy, if you just brought that in overly bright so there was more contrast between hair and background it would make the job of photo shop selection tools so much easier and then when you're finished, then you put it back to the setting you want and one of the things I talked about earlier one of my class called good work habits is this hole think backwards idea the end result I want is him looking realistic on this background, but or to get there I might end up having to overdo something so that I can pull it back at the end. Now this camera smart object idea means it will stay on from now on. So if I open a clearly different raw file as soon as I open it down here the bottom and saying open object because that is now a preference that says from now on open all camera files as smart objects and personally I am perfectly fine with that and I'll show you the on ly downside to this and it's to me it's not a huge one, but you have to be prepared for it is when you open a raw file or you do that convert for smart filters, which turns into this thing called a smart object if you take any tool like the healing brush or the clone stamp to you, get this little symbol going no, because you can't work directly on it because technically it's not really there it's in a container, and then that inside that container is the original camera raw file, so it means that any work you want to do to like the image yourself, you can't work directly on the background layer, or I should say, on a smart object, which, honestly, for me, that was never a problem, because even before smart objects, I used to clone and hell on two separate layers anyway, because it gave me more control. So in this case, if I wanted to, I don't know, clone something out or do something on the image, I would just add a new layer, and now all I need to make sure is in the options for the tool, it says. Sample all layers and that's photo shops way of saying put the results of this tool onto the blank layer, so if, for example, I was too this is the greatest example in the world, but we'll do something let's just say they need more watermelon so I got my clone stamp tool, I got it set to all layers, everything else is kind of normal on make it bigger, and I just option are all click and say we need some more over here. There it is, the difference is it's on a separate layer, so that's the one kind when people say have it the one problem with smart objects, you can't work directly on it, my response is ok, I probably wouldn't anyway, and when I open a regular background layer, I hardly ever work directly on the regular background. I tend to make a new layer and do any cloning, painting, healing, et cetera on that separate layer. Anyway, the only thing you have to be the sort of extra caution is, well, I can have a live ability go back and forth between camera raw and photoshopped things like the clone stamp tools are in one moment in time. In other words, if I after I've done this cloning, if I now went back and said, I've changed my mind, I want this to be really dark for some reason, when I click ok, you'll see what happens is the background changes, but the one I clone didn't, because that was at that moment in time, so that's the only thing you have to kind of think about is try to be pretty sure that your settings as faras exposure and everything else or the way you want then when you do any whatever it is cloning healing on that separate layer it will match up. I mean, at worst, if you decided now you needed to make a change, you could always just throw away this layer and do it again. So I mean there's always a solution, it's just any time you can think about the kind of order in which you do things to say, well, let's, try and get our camera ross settings as close as we possibly can first, then that's going to give us more options to change our mind. Okay, one last little thing I think we're gonna have a bit of time soon for questions. Is that right? All righty. So let's, go here and I'll just use this. Yes, all right, so I've got a background layer and I also want to bring in now this is actually open a document you see it's made up of several layers, but I just want to show you that you can see it's, a document up of several layers. One of the other interesting things of working with smart objects is I know I want this is a local I've created, so I wanted to always look like that, so I don't want to risk dragging over three layers and leaving one behind or anything like that. So even though it's a multi layered document if I drag it into this document he said drag it into this document and it decided I just won't do that so let's try a different option which is place into photoshopped way go not sure why that didn't work but that's ok, we're going to pretend that we're going to put this on the wall maybe I don't know it just kind of making this up at least I am when you look at take a look at the layers panel see how it's showing up as if it's one layer but if I double click on this inside of it in that container is all the original layers so if I decided I didn't really want they've no longer selling flowers so as soon as I make a change now updates over here but that would include if I did things like maybe change the blend mode to multiply so it actually looked like it was painted on the wall or something like that but it's still live whatever I do here I can double click and say actually that was silly it does need to have this but these two layers need to be down here and all I'm doing is saving this document when you save this document it updates the contents on the other one wherever it's used so this is a very different way of working because right now I have what looks like two layers, right? When you look at the layers panel it's actually one, two, three, four plus the other one, but the four layers only displaying as one now I won't lie to you this for most people it takes a bit of like hold on a second, I have to edit in this file, but once you do it like anywhere from three to seventeen times, it starts to really click in and you're like, ok, this this is a really good way to work because it's preserving things it's not you have to worry about what if I oops I moved the wrong layer or whatever it is so on this document I could do everything I want, you know, any transformation I could do that filter? I could add a layer mask? Is it it's kind of weird that her foot is in front of that fire hydrant? Where should really be behind it? Whatever it is, but at any time I can double click and these air live type players, so if I want to edit the type because she suddenly decided I don't like the look of this word, I can still edit the type because it's still a type player inside this object so this is kind of taking the non destructive thing to another level of control in flexibility because we have to worry as much of what if I make a mistake because I bring brought this in and it became a smart object by nature, it also means that it has smart filters, so if I decided for the sake of argument and I'll just do something really obviously can see it here, tow add some kind of weirdness to my graphic closer so you can see it now that's in the mix too. So now I have I have a smart object that containing several layers to which I've added a smart filter that I can edit on top of a camera smart object that I can edit, so this is like flexibility galore so there's never any worry of like, oh, well, I'm at a point where I can't change this one thing you always can and that's what makes this so cool? So do we want tio squeeze in a few questions here we have the time the shooter let's start in the studio audience here if you get back to the composite on dh so you want to do something to the entire composite like brighten it or something like that, do you have to work on both the separate bits or because you said not to do merge tonight that that's more of an optional thing what's fun about this is that even though these two layers air camera smart objects, it doesn't change the fact that on top of this you could do things like add an adjustment layer like curves or levels who and that will affect both layers below without trying to guess why adobe does some of the things that they d'oh with the existence of smart filters and smart objects how much of a purpose is there really for the dumber versions? That's a good question in my my philosophy is any time I couldn't do things in a way where I can edit it later I just would so what's starting to happen is for example in c s six they introduced three new blur filters which are really awesome but in the first version they couldn't be smart so to me that lowered their usability considerably now with the creative cloud updates there doing the latest one that create a cloud update now those new blur filters are also smart which man liquefy is also smart things that weren't before so to me it's okay to use thie and let's call them not smart as opposed to dumb but it just means you have to really think about the implications of doing that sure do you see things trending towards maybe the regular layers and regular filters going away completely in them just being smart by nature I would love that I don't know if adobe would just because there's still enough people that are still have their habits where they duplicate the background layer and if you suddenly said you you have to do it this way people might be more like I think it would be brilliant if they did because it's just it's frankly once you get the hang of it it's so much easier and faster it's just quite different so the first couple times say someone just double click to edit it over here in this other document there like but once you do that a few times it's like ok, it makes perfect sense great thank you can you open as a smart object from light room or do you have to go through bridge there? A light room does have an option that's called edit and photo shop as a smart object the only twist to it is here when I come from camera wrought a photo shop and I double click it goes back to camera and when you start in light room and you say edit and photo shop is a smart object if you double click on it it goes to camera wrong not the light room but the sliders are the same, so if you're used to the light room sliders you can still start there editing photo shop is a smart object double click on it now you're working camera once you save and close the document, it still ends up back in your light room library. You can still start from that end. Excellent, we have todo we have another one in the addicts. Is there a downside to convert to smart object? Is there anything? Is there anything other than the different workflow double clicking to change things and stuff that I wouldn't want to do that all the time? I mean, the the the really on lee, the true downsides are the fact you can't work directly on the layers I showed you a, so you have to if you're doing any cloning or healing. But and the other thing is that some people would say is your file size gets bigger and my response is that is, who cares? And I'm without being, you know, flipping really these days just get more storage if you're worried about or get more ram, because the to me, the advantage that gives you tow have that live version. If the biggest downside is my files or larger, like people ask me all the time, how big is that file? I don't know. I really care, I just save it because it's online machine I don't have to ever take it somewhere. This is my working file, so as long as I can open it and I don't get all these warning saying, I'm running out of memory, if you are, then you have to do something. But in terms of weighing the balance of the benefit versus the cost, shall we say of the file size? I don't care great? Well, we have a few questions in the chat room that are somewhat related that ingenuity in austin, texas, and san cox in loveland have both asked if there's any way of documenting your project process and project notes as you're going along and saving it with the file. So that a year later, sam says, speaking of I have no idea how I did that a year later. Well, unfortunately, there isn't any easy way to do that. Well, the documents live, the history panel kind of does that to some degree, but you can't really preserve that easily. And to me, the answer is, even though it's not right staring in your face, the smart objects have that built in, you just have to go looking for it. So you have to go double click on the camera off on go oh yeah, I moved the slider to hear and then look at the filter and say, oh, I changed it to this opacity so it's there you just have to kind of delve in a bit to find it all right? Three people have four people have asked a similar question about tips, so I'll ask the first one, which is a little bit more broader question that covers the rest. Danny a pg what if you save as a tiff? Isn't it the same as trying to save as a psd and going further on the tiff question I mostly at it in light room and then do specials retouch in photo shop? I choose to open a copy of my original and always opens as a tiff should then I save as a p s d similar questions from daniel in mexico, digital studio and jenise? Well, I can answer that two ways from a technical standpoint, there really is no great difference during saving his tiff as a psd. My reason for doing it for some people sounds kind of silly, but it makes sense to me is when I come back to a folder later if I see a file it says dot tiff, I don't know if it has layers or not because it could but it might not. So in my work clothes, I see dot any f it's, my raw file I saw, etc dot psd I know is my layer file, and I know dot j p g is my final version. So from a technical standpoint, there's really not a big difference between p s d versus tiff, but my workload has always been sometimes he will ask me for a tiff file, and I'd hate to send them a layer to file ball mistake is they can't work on it. So when I save his tiff for me personally, it's always a flattened tiff because I know that's why they want a tiff is for their printing purposes. If you start in light room and we just talked about do that editing photo shop as a smart object, then you're maurine the psd work blow anyway from saif eddo. Why put a mask over a layer? Let's say the curve layer versus just having that layer? Both are editable and nondestructive, so why make it a mask player? Not entirely. Sure, I understand what they're asking any time you have ah, layer mask, you can determine what parts of the layer are adjusted. In other words, an adjustment layer by nature is going to affect the entire layer. By painting on the mask you could decide what areas of that layer can be edited and then the mask and the adjustment arkan both be edited so that's that's the main reason why do it that way? I think you might have already covered this, but if you wouldn't mind are rephrasing for c image from philly can the an action b a applied to smart objects? Well, I'll answer that with my favorite answer is that that depends or theoretically one of the other because almost anything with actions can be recorded it just you might have to say, for example, record converting it to a smart object to be able to use it or if you open a camera smart object it's assuming that it already is so you can't it won't record oh this is a smart object it would just action would start at you have a document open now you want me to do so you'd have to keep in mind well since it's a smart object, I need to add a blank layer and make sure my tool says sample all layers so my response would be probably most of what you want to do should work as an action use have to kind of plan accordingly to think his actions are very specific after record very specific steps and if you're not recording open as a smart object it won't it'll just be a regular layer I'm related to the federal behind you, chris is asking, well, he sets up with yo, dave, uh, what's the reasoning behind trying to take your picture out of focus in the soccer field versus just adding bowler to the photo and photo shop. Well, that's, that's, a really good question and it's the question, it could be answered in any time and it's, a combination of either so I would call it laziness. Some people would call it thinking ahead. While you could take a photo and make it blurry, most people find, other than the new c s six more films, which are closer, trying to create the feel of depth of field with a filter, never looks as riel as true depth of field. So I took this photo with the express intent of it being my background. If this was just a random photo ahead of a soccer field for some other thing that I might have had to artificially blurred, but that was part of my thought process was, I need a background, so actually got out of my office and drove to the local soccer field and took this photo for this purpose, so because of that, it just made sense to do it in camera, because a it's easier and b, it often looks more realistic, cool, a newbie new hasn't question for newbies, what does rest arise? Photo mean, when you click on that always open as a smart object, well, rast arise is basically the arch enemy of non destructiveness. So if I have a smart object layer, and then I find myself running into problems where I can't edit something. Some people's reaction is to use a command called restaurant means, turn it back into pixels that you can no longer edit. So any time you see restaurants with its restaurants type or restaurant is a smart object, that's saying, almost like flattening. Keep in mind that if you do that, you're losing some of your ability to change your mind, and I used to say so. If you feel like you have to go ahead in the last year, maybe I haven't ever found a reason where I've needed to. Rast arise, a smart object to get to the results I wanted.